A2: Kalarku

AIATSIS code: 
A2
AIATSIS reference name: 
Kalarku

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Ngatjunmay (Galagu/Kalako), Malpa
Ethnologue name
Kalarko
ISO 639-3 code
kba
Tindale name
Kalaako
Thesaurus heading language
Kalarku language A2
Thesaurus heading (old)
Kalaako / Malpa language (A2) (WA SI51-02)
Tindale (1974)
Kalarko, Malba (i.e., 'circumcised and subincised ones'; name applied by Wudjari to this and other immediately northern tribes).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Malba
Glottocode
kala1379
Other sources
West Mirniny, Marlba [<ozbib>O'Grady et al. 1966:134$4461</ozbib>] Kallaargu, Kallaar [<ozbib>von Brandenstein 1980$733</ozbib>]
Synonyms
Kalaaku, Kalarko, Ngatjunmay, Galagu/Kalako, Malpa, Galagu, Kalako, Ngadjunmaia, Marlba, Beelia, Beeloo, Derbal, Gala:gu, Ilakuri wongi, Juadjag, Juadjek, Juadjuk, Kalaako, Karakata, Karrakatta, Malba, Minal njunga, Minalnjunga, Minnal Yungar, Mooro, Murram, Njindango, Swan River Tribe, Takalako, Wadjug, Wadjuk, Wadjup, Wajuk, Whadjuk, Whajook, Witja:ri, Witjari, Yooadda, Yooard, Yoongar, Yuard, Yuatjek, Yungar, Yungur, Galaagu, West Mirniny
Comment
Comments: 
There are conflicting reports about the status of Kalarku with respect to both the name Marlba A110 and Ngadjumaya A3. Little information is available, and there are no remaining speakers of Kalarku (though there is data available), making it impossible to be certain as both von Brandenstein (1970) and Morphy (1985) conclude. Malba/Malpa appears to have been used to refer to several language varieties; as an alternative name for both Kalarku and Ngadjumaya A3, and to refer to a language variety distinct from both of these. Tindale (1974:243) reports that malba means 'circumcised and subincised ones' and is a 'name applied by Wudjari W41 to (Kalaako) and other immediately northern tribes'. However, von Brandenstein (1980:2) says it means 'man' and identifies it as one of six language varieties in the Dundas District area (the others being Mirning (Eucla) A9, Fraser Range A74, Norseman A99, Windaga A111 and Kallaagu (A2), commenting that 'it will be difficult to extract the different components of the (Dundas District) languages (...) from the mixed language now called Ngadju A3 which is still spoken'.
References: 
  • Brandenstein, Carl G. von. 1970. Report [to A.I.A.S.] on field work conducted July/August 1970 as part of the 1969/1970 project Western Desert fringe study. (PMS 2140).
  • Brandenstein, Carl G. von. 1980. Ngadjumaja: an Aboriginal language of south-east Western Australia. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissen-schaft der Universität Innsbruck.
  • Morphy, F. 1985. Working notes on Western Australian languages. Part of an ARGS project directed by RMS Dixon. (Not held; reported in Theiberger 1987)
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Thieberger, Nicholas. 1987. Handbook of WA Aboriginal languages (south of the Kimberley region). Preliminary first draft, March 1987. Perth: Institute of Applied Aboriginal Studies, Western Australian College of Advanced Education. (REF 499.15 THI)
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 

Green Patch and Scaddan to north of Widgemool-tha; Mount Monger, Golden Ridge, and Burbanks; east to Karkanja, the red ochre deposit approximately 15 miles (24 km.) west of Fraser Range; west to Bremer Range, the Johnston Lakes, Mount Holland, Barker Lake, and Koon-gornin; a boundary camp was situated about three miles south of Coolgardie; at Norseman and Salmon Gums (Tindale 1974). The location given by Oates (1975) is limited to north of Norseman, towards Coolgardie.

Maps: 
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates0
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (Vocabulary)
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Mirning Kalarko  
Dixon (2002)   WESTERN BIGHT GROUP   Kalaaku Kalaaku (=Ngadjunmaya)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Galaagu  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Mirning Galaagu  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Pilbara-Nyungar (Southwest) Mirninj (Ngadju) Galaagu  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Mirniny Kalarko (Galagu)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Mirniny Kalarko