A48: Ngarla

AIATSIS code: 
A48
AIATSIS reference name: 
Ngarla

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Name
ABN name
Yinhawangka language
ABS name
Yinhawangka
Horton name
Yinhawangka
Ethnologue name
Panytyima [Yinawongga]
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Inawongga, Ninanu
Thesaurus heading language
Ngarla language A48
Thesaurus heading (old)
Yinhawangka / Innawonga language (A48) (WA SF50-04)
Tindale (1974)
Inawangga, Inawonga (in error) for Inawongga. ? Ngaunmardi. Nalawonga, Ngalawongga, Ngalawonga, Ngarla (not to be confused with de Grey River tribe of that name) , Ngarla-warngga, 'Southern Pad'ima' for Ninanu.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Njinanu, Yinha, Inyawonga [Wangka Maya PALC 2008:iii] Yinha, Inyawonga [Dixon 2011:44]
Synonyms
Yinhawangka, Panytyima, Inawonga, Inawangga, Inawonga for Inawongga, Ngaunmardi, Nalawonga, Ngalawongga, Ngalawonga, Ngarla warngga, Southern Padima for Ninanu
Comment
Comments: 
Ngarla is the current community-preferred spelling while the variants that have appeared in past records, such as Ngarlawangga, Ngalawonoga, etc., are incorrect. Ngarla (A48) is not to be confused with Ngarla W40 from the de Grey River. There are some manuscripts and recordings on Ngarla in the AIATSIS collection (PMS 2125, MS 1746, IRRA-WANGGA_01), as well as a glossary of Ngaala-Warngga (A48) words in Prichard (1974). Note that Dixon (2002) lists Ngarluwangka (A48) as a possible dialect of Watjarri A39 along with Birdungu A40 (though its identity is uncertain) and Nhugarn A71. It appears that (A48) was originally assigned to Ngalawonga, which later became known as Yinhawangka A79 as it was thought to be an alternative (and preferred) name for the same language. An additional code, A79, was created when it became apparent that the two are likely distinct language varieties, but this was applied to Ngalawonga (now Ngarla). The two codes have now been reversed to reflect the original assignment.
References: 
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Oates, William J., and Lynette F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia: Australian Aboriginal Studies 33, Linguistic Series 12. Canberra: AIAS.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
Headwaters of the Ashburton and Gascoyne Rivers; south to near Three Rivers and Mulgul; east to Ilgarari (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
  • Dench, Alan. 1995. Martuthunira, a language of the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Sharp, Janet and Thieberger, Nick. 2001. Wangka Maya, the Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. In Forty years on, eds J Simpson et al., 325-335. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census3
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (vocabulary and elicited sentences on Ngarlawangka)
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
Wangka Maya PALC. 2008. Yinhawangka: Yinhawangka dictionary English-Yinhawangka wordlist and topical wordlists 2008. South Hedland: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Inland Ngayarda Panytyima [Yinawongga] Panytyima [dialects: Related to Yinawongga, Ngarlawangga, Ngarla, Tjurruru, which may be extinct, and Nyamal.]
Dixon (2002) GASCOYNE RIVER TO PILBARA AREAL GROUP Pilbara/Ngayarta areal group Yinhawangka Panyjima (Panjtjima) Dench (1991) dialects: Pantikura, Mitjaranjpa; and Yinhawangka (may be a separate language)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West Yinawongga
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Inland Ngayarda Yinawongga
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Pilbara-Nyungar (Southwest) Inland Ngayarda Inawanga/Ninaanu
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Western Desert Language Inawonga
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Wati Inawonga