A58: Nyamal

AIATSIS code: 
A58
AIATSIS reference name: 
Nyamal

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Nyamal
Horton name
Nyamal
Ethnologue name
Nyamal
ISO 639-3 code
nly
Tindale name
Njamal
Thesaurus heading language
Nyamal language A58
Thesaurus heading (old)
Nyamal language (A58) (WA SF51-05)
Tindale (1974)
Nyamal, Nyamel, N'amal, Njalmal (probably a draftsman's error), Namal, Namel, Gnamo (in Leiden Museum MS), Tjingkai Njamal (hordes near Strelley River), Ibarga (upper Oakover River hordes), Ibarrga, Ibargo, Njamat (an Indjibandi version of name), Wanbarda (Njan-gamarda name for this, the Ngarla and the Kariara tribe, it means 'lowlands people'), Widagari (the southeastern hordes of Njamal), Widagaree, Wirdakarri, Weedokarry, Weedookary, Pundju Njamal ('heavy' speakers of Njamal), Pundu N'amal.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Njamal, Nyamel, Namel, Gnamo
Glottocode
nyam1271
Other sources
-
Synonyms
Pundju, Widagari, Witukari, Gnamo, Ibarga, Ibargo, Ibarrga, Namal, Namarl, Namel, Njalmal, Njamal, Njamarl, Njamat, Nyamarl, Nyamel, Pundju Njamal, Pundu Namal, Tjingkai Njamal, Wanbarda, Weedokarry, Weedookary, Widagaree, Wirdakarri
Comment
Comments: 
Oates (1975:74) lists Bundjuwanga A75 as a dialect of Nyamal and says it was studied and termed by von Brandenstein as 'heavy' Njamal (A58). No item with the name Bundjuwanga is found in MURA but there may be Bundjuwanga data described as being on the Nyamal (A58) language, particularly amongst von Brandenstein's manuscripts.
References: 
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Dixon, Sally. 2011. How to read and write Pilbara languages. South Hedland: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
On the Coongan and Shaw rivers to their headwaters and on the lower reaches of the de Grey River west of Barramine almost to Mulyie and Wodgina; at Marble Bar, Nullagine, Hillside, Bamboo Springs, and Warrawoona. Njamal also inhabit the headwaters of the Yule and Turner rivers east of Wodjina. They are the ['Pundju ] or 'heavy' speakers of Njamal (Tindale 1974). Bundjuwanga: Area encompassing headwaters of Turner, Shaw and Coongan Rivers, Studied by von Brandenstein who termed it 'heavy' Njamal (Oates 1975:74). Contemporary location: Yandeyarra, Port Hedland, Warralong (Dixon 2011:39).
Maps: 
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
  • Dench, Alan. 1995. Martuthunira, a language of the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. 2001. Kariyarra wordlists & sketch grammar. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Sharp, Janet. 2004. Nyangumarta: a language of the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Alan Dench, Geoff O'Grady, Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates100
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt10
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS25?
2005Estimate20
2006Census34
2011Census32
2016Census25

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
Burgman, Albert. 2007. Nyamal dictionary: English-Nyamal finderlist and topical wordlist 2007. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. Burgman, Albert. 2007. Nyamal dictionary 2007. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. (CD ROM)
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Inland Ngayarda Nyamal
Dixon (2002) GASCOYNE RIVER TO PILBARA AREAL GROUP Pilbara/Ngayarta areal group Nyamal Nyamal further dialects: Ibarga, Widugari
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West Nyamal
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Inland Ngayarda Nyamal
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Pilbara-Nyungar (Southwest) Inland Ngayarda Njamal
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Ngayarda Nyamarl (Nyamal)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Ngayarda Nyamal