A87: Wangkajunga

AIATSIS code: 
A87
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wangkajunga

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Wangkajunga
Horton name
-
Ethnologue name
Martu Wangka [Wangkajunga]
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
-
Thesaurus heading language
-
Thesaurus heading (old)
-
Tindale (1974)
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Synonyms
Martu Wangka, Wanggadjunga
Comment
Comments: 
According to Jones (2002:12-20), it appears that the term Wangkajunga was introduced sometime in the early 1970s by the Western Desert people at Christmas Creek and Fitzroy Crossing as a means to identify themselves as desert people and to distinguish themselves from Walmajarri A66 and Yulparija A67. The term is now used as both the name of a particular dialect of the Western Desert language A80 and as a cover term for several of these dialects.
References: 
  • Jones, Barbara. 2002. A grammar of Wangkajunga: a language of the Great Sandy Desert of North Western Australia. University of Sydney. PhD thesis.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 

... north-eastern section of the Great Sandy Desert and the Canning Stock Route (Jones 2002). South and west of Lake Gregory (Oates 1975:126) Contemporary location: Fitzroy Crossing, Christmas Creek Station, Bohemia Downs Station Fitzroy Valley (Jones 2002).

Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Wirdinya (A49 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

8.6 Wangkajunga / Wangkatjungka

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Wanggadjunggu (Berndt), Wangkajungka, Wangkatjungka (Hansen)
A number of white people (including people living in Fitzroy Crossing) have misheard the language name as Wangkajungka; this is definitely incorrect. The term 'Wangkajunga' comes from wangka 'talk' and junga 'straight', and means means 'straight/correct speech'. These days at least, it refers to a Western Desert dialect which is quite similar to Yulparija and Kukatja. Some speakers of the latter claim that they speak the former, when in fact it appears that they are responding to the meaning of the term (i.e. they are claiming to speak 'straight', or correctly). This, together with the fact that many earlier surveys (such as Tindale's) do not include this language/dialect/ group name, perhaps suggests that the term is a recent innovation as a dialect name.
Classification of the language:
Pama-Nyungan family; Western Desert group
Identification codes:
AIAS: (Kukaja A68)
Oates 1973: 56.10a
Capell: (Kukaja A16)
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Fitzroy Crossing, Christmas Creek (Wangkatjungka Community), Bayulu, by at least 100 full speakers.
People who have worked intensively on the language:
McGregor, from 1982, at Fitzroy Crossing and Christmas Creek
Practical orthography:
None in regular use. The South Kimberley orthography would be suitable, as would be the Kukatja variant.
Word lists:
Hansen (1984), Angelo (1985)
Textual material:
McGregor has collected and transcribed some, but none is published.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
None
Material available on the language:
Angelo, M. 1985. Wangkajunga picture dictionary. manuscript. AIAS p11983.
Hansen, K. 1984. Communicability of some Western Desert communalects. In Hudson, J. & Pym, N. (eds), Language survey. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-11) Darwin: SIL. 1-112.
McGregor, W.B. 1982. [Field notes: Wangkajunga] manuscript.
Thieberger, N. 1987. Handbook of WA Aboriginal languages (south of the Kimberley region). first draft. typescript. Mt. Lawley: Institute of Applied Aboriginal Studies.
Language programme:
A language maintenance programme was begun in the Christmas Creek School in 1987.
Language learning material:
None
Literacy material:
Angelo, M. 1985. Wangkajunga picture dictionary. manuscript. AIAS p11983.

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Barbara Jones
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census14
2016Census10

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
Available
Grammar: 

Jones, Barbara. 2002. A grammar of Wangkajunga: a language of the Great Sandy Desert of North Western Australia, University of Sydney: PhD.

Dictionary: 

Jones, Barbara et al.. 2001. Ngaapa wangka Wangkajunga: this language is Wangkajunga language. Halls Creek: Kimberley Language Resource Centre.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati Martu Wangka [Wangkajunga] Martu Wangka [dialects: Manyjilyjara (Mantjiltjara), Kartujarra (Kartutjara, Kardutjara, Kadaddjara, Kardutjarra, Kiadjara, Gardudjara, Gagudjara), Puditara (Budidjara, Putujara), Yulparitja (Yilparitja, Yulbaridja), Wangkajunga (Wangkajungka). Mantjiltjara and Kartutjara are two ethnic groups speaking almost identical dialects. High inherent intelligibility between Yulparitja and Wangkajunga. Speakers of the 4 dialects can use the same written language with possible minor adjustments, including vocabulary change, partly needed because of cultural identity factors.]
Dixon (2002)          
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Wangkatjungka  
Walsh (1981)          
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Western Desert Proper Wati Wanggadjunga  
Wurm (1972)          
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)