A88: Juwaliny

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Walmajarri (Juwaliny)
Horton name
Ethnologue name
Walmajarri [Djuwarliny]
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Tindale (1974)
O'Grady et al (1966)
Other sources
Tjiwaliny [<ozbib>Hudson 1978$2985</ozbib>] Djualin [<ozbib>Kolig PMS 2255$7548</ozbib>] Jiwarliny, Juwarliny, Tjiwaling, Tjiwarlin [<ozbib>Dixon 2011:46$7367</ozbib>]
Tjuwalinj, Walmajarri, Tjiwaliny, Yuwarliny, Tyiwaliny

Joyce Hudson compiled a Tjiwalinj word list (1973).

Juwaliny is a dialect of Walmajarri A66 according to Hudson and Richards (2007 p.c.).

Jiwarliny is a member of the Ngumpin family, with Walmajarri (Thieberger, 1993: 17). 

Laughren (2016 p.c.) suggests that 'Tchagilin' as appears with language data in Terry (1926:194) may be an alternative spelling of Juwaliny.


  • Hudson, Joyce A. 1978. The core of Walmatjari grammar. Canberra AIAS/Atlantic Highlands NJ: Humanities Press.
  • Dixon, Sally. 2011. How to read and write Pilbara languages. South Hedland: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Hudson, Joyce. 1973. Tjiwalinj word list. Darwin: Summer Institute of Linguistics Australian Aborigines Branch. (PMS 2242).
  • Theiberger, Nicholas. 1993. Handbook of Western Australian Aboriginal languages South of the kimberley Region. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics series C -124.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

Great Sandy Desert, inland from La Grange and south-west of Fitzroy Crossing (Sally Dixon, Wangka Maya, 2007 p.c.). La Grange Mission (Hudson 1978:2). Walmajarri: The original tribal territory of the Walmatjari is the northern part of the Great Sandy Desert. The eastern Walmatjari lived along the northern part of the Canning Stock Route south-west and west of Balgo Hills Mission and the Western Walmatjari lived in the area south of Noonkenbah station. Movement out of the desert took place to the north, east and west and Walmatjari speaking people are now to be found on cattle stations along the Fitzroy River and Christmas Creek, as far as Derby in the west and Halls Creek in the east (Hudson 1978:2). Contemporary location: Bidyadanga, Broome and some Kimberley communities (Dixon 2011:46).

Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Nugara (A5 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).


Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Walmadjari (AIAS, AC), Walmadyeri (N), Walmaharri (Matthews), Walmatjari (AC, Hudson), Walmatjeri (Worms), Walmatjiri (Douglas), Walmayari ) (probably Jaru name), Warmala, Wolmaharry ), Wolmatjeri (Kaberry), Wolmera, Wolmeri (O'G,RLS), Wulumari
Dialects: Jiwarliny (to west); Billiluna dialect (to south-east)
Classification of the language:
Northern Western Desert Type, Ngumbin subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 59.7b
AIAS: A.066
Capell: A35
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Between 800 and 1000 speakers. Fitzroy Crossing, Looma, Eastern Kimberleys. Traditionally Great Sandy Desert, Lat. 19-21 S, Long. 124-127 E
Black, 1979 --
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Joyce Hudon and Eirlys Richards, Fitzroy Crossing.
Practical orthography:
Yes: Hudson & Richards.
Word lists:
Hudson (1978).
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Hudson (1978).
Material available on the language:
Berndt, R.M. 1972. The Walmadjeri and Gugadja, in Hunters and gatherers today. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Fraser, J. & J. Hudson. 1975. A comparison and contrasting of the noun phrase of Walmatjari with the noun phrase of Fitzroy Crossing children's Pidgin.
Hudson, Joyce. 1970. Walmatjari paragraph types. ms. SIL-AAB. ---------- 1971. Some features of high level phonology in Walmatjari. 1st draft. March. 15p. SIL.
---------- Walmatjari: nominative-ergative or nominative-accusative? Pacific Linguistics A.42:1-30. (Papers in Australian Linguistics, 9)
---------- 1976. The derivational affix 'having'; 10: Walmadjari, p.205-8 in Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages, ed. by R.M.W. Dixon. AIAS.
---------- 1976. Simple and compound verbs: conjugation by auxiliaries in Australia verbal systems; 82: Walmatjari, p.653-67 in Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages, ed. by R.M.W.
Dixon. AIAS.
---------- 1978. The core of Walmatjari grammar. 115p. AIAS.
---------- 1980. A tentative analysis of illocutionary verbs in Walmatjari. 30p. ts. June. ANU.
---------- & Eirlys Richards. 1969. The phonology of Walmatjari. Oceanic Linguistics 8:171-189.
---------- & ---------- 1971. Walmatjari dictionary. (superseded)
---------- & ---------- 1973. Walmatjari word list. SIL
---------- & ---------- 1976. The Walmatjari: an introduction to the language and culture. Work Papers of SIL-AAB B.1. SIL.
---------- & ---------- 1978. Dictionary Walmatjari to English and English to Walmatjari, first draft. 200p. xerox ts. SIL. (under revision)
Richards, Eirlys. 1974. Tentative frequency count of clause types in written and oral narrative in Walmatjari. Nov.
---------- 1977. The Walmatjari noun phrase. (prepublication draft) Aug. 45p.
---------- & Joyce Hudson. 1973. Wangki 1-4. Word. SIL.
O'Grady, G.N. [1968?] Language material from W.A. 364p. ms. (comparative vocabularies)
Worms, E.A. 1950. Feuer und feuerzeuger in sage und brauch der Nordwest Australier. Anthropos 45:145-164. (includes list of words relating to fire-making in Mangala, Gogadja, Garadjeri,
Bidongo, Walmatjari)
Literacy material:
Richards & Hudson (see section 8, 9)
---------- & ---------- (a number of story books and scripture portions)

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Witukari (A60 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

8.10 Juwaliny / Jiwarliny / Tjiwarliny

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Tjiwarliny (Black & Walsh), Jiwarliny (KLS), Tjiwarlin (Oates).
Said to be a dialect of Walmajarri (Hudson 1978:2).
Classification of the language:
Pama-Nyungan family, Ngumpin subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates 1973: 59.7a
Capell: A35
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Mainly La Grange Mission, where there are a fair number of speakers (McKelson, pers.comm.)
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Fr. McKelson, since 1950s, mainly in La Grange
Practical orthography:
The South Kimberley orthography is in use in the language programme in La Grange School.
Word lists:
Textual material:
Grammar or sketch grammar:
McKelson (nd)
Material available on the language:
Hudson, J. 1978. Core of Walmatjari grammar. Canberra: AIAS.
McKelson, K.nd Learn some Aboriginal; learn some Juwaliny. typescript.
Language programme:
Since 1985 La Grange School has run a language programme in the five local languages, including Juwaliny.
Language learning material:
Literacy material:

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list   2?
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 

Hale, Kenneth. Jiwarliny, AILEC 0015 and PMS 3011.

Hudson, Joyce. 1973. Tjiwalinj word list. Darwin: Summer Institute of Linguistics Australian Aborigines Branch.

Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Ngumbin Walmajarri [Djuwarliny] Walmajarri [dialects: Djuwarliny (Juwaliny, Tjuwalinj)]
Dixon (2002)   NORTHERN DESERT FRINGE SUBGROUP Edgar Range to Victoria River subgroup* Tjuwalinj Walmatjarri Hudson (1978) further dialects: Tjuwalinj, Pililuna
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Djuwarliny  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Ngumbin Djuwarliny  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Central Western Desert Type Ngarga Djiwarlinj  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Ngumbin Tjiwaliny  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)