C10: Pintupi

AIATSIS code: 
C10
AIATSIS reference name: 
Pintupi

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Name
ABN name
Pintupi language
ABS name
Pintupi
Horton name
Pintupi
Ethnologue name
Pintupi-Luritja
ISO 639-3 code
piu
Tindale name
Pintubi, Ildawongga
Thesaurus heading language
Pintupi language C10
Thesaurus heading (old)
Pintupi language (C10) (NT SF52-11)
Tindale (1974)
Pi:ntubi (valid variant), Pintupi, Bindubi, Pintunala, Pintubu (pronunciation used by Walpiri), Pindu (form of name used in discussing their language), Pindubu, Bindubu, Bindooboo, Bindiboo (uninformed anglicization used at Yuendumu after 1945), Bindibu, Bindaboo, Wankawinan (name applied by Pitjandjara to the Wenamba and western hordes of Pintubi), Pintudjara (name used by Ngadadjara), Kalgonei (name given to Wenamba and Pintubi language speakers by Ngadadjara), Wiluraratja ('westerners,' name applied by Ngalia), Pintubu, Puntubu (Ngalia pronunciations); Pintubidjara, Pintudjara, Pintularapi, Pintubitjara, and 'Wanka'winan (names given by Ngadadjara), 'Wan-ka'winan (name given by Pitjandjara to western Pintubi), Bindiboo (a journalist's version), Kalgonei (derogatory language ascribed to them by Ngadadjara), Kalguni, Kalgo-neidjara, Teitudjara (name ascribed to them by a Nangatara man, also by a Kokatja of Gregory Salt Sea area), Matju:na-latara (name used by Ngadadjara of Rawlinson Ranges), Wenamba (western hordes here considered as a separate tribe in Western Australia list), Panika (class term, properly Panaka, erroneously quoted as a tribal name by Simmons et al., 1957) for Pintubi. Ilda, Ilta, Manggawara (of Ngadadjara-so-called from their style of hairdressing), Wananwanari (a lone native who arrived at Yuendumu from west of Lake Mackay in 1950 was called this by Pintubi men), Maiidjara (of a Kokatja man), Maiadjara for Ildawongga.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Bindibu, Pintupi, Bindabu
Glottocode
pint1250
Other sources
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Synonyms
Pintupi Luritja, Bindubi, Ildawonga, Wenamba, Bindaboo, Bindabu, Bindiboo, Bindibu, Bindooboo, Bindubu, Kalgonei, Kalgoneidjara, Kalguni, Loritja, Luridja, Luritja, Matjunalatara, Panika, Pi:ntubi, Pindu, Pindubu, Pintubi, Pintubidjara, Pintubitjara, Pintubu, Pintudjara, Pintularapi, Pintunala, Puntubu, Teitudjara, Wankawinan, Wenaba, Wiluraratja, Ildawongga, Puntubu; Pintubidjara, Wan kawinan, Kalgo neidjara, Matju:na latara, Panika for Pintubi, Ilda, Ilta, Manggawara, Wananwanari, Maiidjara, Maiadjara for Ildawongga
Comment
Comments: 
Pintupi and Luritja C7.1 are two similar but overlapping dialects of the Western Desert language group (Hansen, 2011:vii). The dialects which make up the Western Desert Language group can be divided into western and eastern groups on the basis of grammatical features and vocabularies. Pintupi-Luritja combines some of the dialect features of the eastern and western groups and is influenced by close contact with Western Arrernte C47 and Warlpiri C15 (Heffernan and Heffernan, 1999:2-3). Pintupi lived with Mayutjarra and other language groups at Haasts Bluff and later Papunya in the early 20th century. The term Luritja C10 once referred to the Pintupi and Mayutjarra families who settled in those places in the 1930's. Pintupi referred to people at Papunya who settled there between 1956-1962, and the children of people who moved to Haasts Bluff in this period call themselves Luritja (Hansen and Hansen, 1975:23). The language spoken by them is influenced by Mayutjarra and surrounding languages, and is called the Luritja dialect. Hansen and Hansen report that some people prefer the term Luritja, with connotations of higher social status (1975:23). Tindale (1974) describes 'Ildawongga' located in country generally identified as the Pintupi-speaking. According to Doug Marmion, Ildawonga is likely to be a misunderstanding by Tindale of the common Pintupi phrase 'yilta wangka', meaning 'true/correct speech'. See also Kukatja C7.
References: 
  • Hansen KC & LE Hansen. 1975. The Core of Pintupi Grammar. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
  • Wurm, Stephen. 1994. Australian classification. In Atlas of the world's languages, eds C. Moseley and R. E. Asher, 114-118. New York: Routledge.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
Pintubi: Lake Mackay, Lake Macdonald, Mount Russell, Ehrenberg Range, Kintore Range, Warman Rocks; west to near Winbaruku; south to about Johnstone Hill. Much of their country is still untraversed by us (Tindale 1974). Ildawaongga: West of Lake Mackay to about Longitude 126°E; north toward a native place named Manggai which is tentatively identified as in the Stansmore Range. Manjil-djara say their country begins at Ngila, an unidentified place several days walk east of Liburu (Libral on maps, Canning Stock Route Well 37). South to about 23°30'S latitude (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Kalaamaya (A4 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Pintupi

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Bindubi (AC, AIAS), Bindubu, Pintupi (T), Pintupi (Hansen), Loritja, Luridja (AIAS), Luritja (RLS, AIAS, Hansen) C.010 (Pintupi), C11 (Yumu)
See Hansen & Hansen, 1977, 1978 for the usage of the name Luritja. Apparently it is a name used generally by Aranda for Western Desert group; the eastern members of Western Desert, who have been in association with Aranda, use the term Luritja to distinguish themselves from "bush" Pintupi. Apparently there are speech differences between Pintupi and Luritja, but they are
dialects of one language. See also Pitjantjatjara.
Yumu:
This language said to be closely related to Pintupi and to Kukatja (W.A.), but on which there is very little information.
Alternative spellings: Jumu (T,O'G,Elkin, Fry), Yumi (Roheim), Yumu (Cleland & Johnson, SAW, AIAS).
Classification of the language:
Western Desert, Wati subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 56.9a (Pintupi), 56.9b (Yumu), 56.9c (Luritja)
AIAS: C.010 (Pintupi), C11 (Yumu)
Capell: C7 (Pintupi), C16 (Yumu)
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Papunya and outstations, Haasts Bluff, Areyonga, Yuendumu, Docker River; Hermannsburg, Glen Helen (particularly Luritja)
Milliken, 1972 -- 613
Black, 1979 -- 800
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Ken Hansen, John Heffernan (Papunya)
Practical orthography:
Established, devised by Hansen & Hansen.
Word lists:
Hansen & Hansen, 1977.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Hansen & Hansen, 1978.
Material available on the language:
See also:
AIAS Selected reading list, Central and Western Desert: The Aranda, Bidjandjarra, Bindubi, Waljbiri. 17p. mimeo. AIAS. 197?
and:
de Graaf, Mark. 1976. Pintupi bibliography. 10p. ms. Alice Springs.
Cleland, J.B. & T.H. Johnson. 1933. The ecology of the Aborigines of Central Australia. Royal Society of South Australia. Transactions 57:113-124. tbls. (lists of plants with names in Aranda, Luritja, Pintubi, Ngalia, Yumu)
Hale, Kenneth L. Ikirinytyi. (mother-in-law language in Luritja) ms.
Hansen, K.C. & L.E. 1969. Pintupi phonology. Oceanic Linguistics 8:153-170.
---------- 1975. The sentence in Pintupi. (First draft, 1970, 58p. SIL; Part 2, Aug. 1971, 56p. SIL)
---------- 1975. Some suggestions for making the transition from Pintupi/Loritja reading to English reading. 12p. mimeo. ts. SIL.
---------- 1977. Pintupi/Luritja Dictionary. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Berrimah. 227p. 2nd edition, Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development.
---------- (with Tjampu Tjapaltjarri) 1980. Pintubi Kinship. 44pp. booklet. 2nd edition. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development. (1st edition, 1974)
Huttar, George L. 1976. Notes on Pintupi phonology. Talanya 3(May):14-24. (Paper presented 1975 at LSA with K.C. Hansen)
Moyle, Richard M. 1979. Songs of the Pintupi. Music in a central Australian society. AIAS.
Murtonen, A. 1969. Pintupi statistical and comparative survey of an Australian Western Desert language. viii+61p. Dept. of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Melbourne. (Also cited as:
Outline of a general theory of linguistics...)
Myers, Fred Ralph. 1976. "To have and to hold": a study of persistence and change in Pintupi social life. Bryn Mawr dissertation. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
Roberts, Murphy. 1975. Pintupi alphabet - adapted from the Warlpiri (constructed) by Ken Hale. 1p. mimeo. Yayayi.
Tindale, N.B. 1932. Journal of an expedition to Mt Leibig, Central Australia, to do anthropological research. Aug 1932. 374p. + suppl. notes. ms. (Kukatja, Jumu, Ngalia, Anmatjera,
Pintubi and Aranda)
Literacy material:
Hansen, K.C. & L.E. 1974. Wangka walytja 1-4. [Our own talk]. Department of Education.
---------- 1974. Wakantjaku 1-4 [For the purpose of writing]. Department of Education.
---------- 1974. Teachers' guide to Pintupi primers. Sections 1,2. Department of Education.
A number of other readers, and scripture portions.
Bilingual newsletter produced at Papunya school.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Djungurdja (A44 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

8.8 Pintupi / Bindubi

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Bindubi (Capell, AIAS), Bindubu, Pintupi (Tindale), Pintupi (Hansen), Loritja, Luridja (AIAS), Luritja (Oates & Oates, AIAS, Hansen)
See Hansen & Hansen (1977) and (1978), and Heffernan (1984a) for the usage of the name Luritja. Apparently it is a name used generally by the Arrernte (Aranda) people of Central Australia for the Western Desert group. It has also been adopted by many different Western Desert groups who have taken up residence on Arrerntic land (Ian Green, pers.comm.). The term does not identify a specific dialect; for instance, Papunya Luritja is not the same dialect as Alice Springs Luritja. According to Ian Green (pers.comm.), "Papunya Luritja has developed from Eastern Pintupi, shows influence from Warlpiri and Arrernte, and shares some grammatical/morphological features with the southern Western Desert dialects Yankunytjatjarra and Pitjanytjatjarra rather than Pintupi. Eastern Pintupi was spoken in the Kintore-Ilypili region, and the Pintupi described by Hansen and Hansen was spoken in the area west of Kintore (see Hansen & Hansen 1977:21)." See also Yulparija, Wangkajunga, and Kukatja.The Yumu language is said to be closely related to Pintupi and to Kukatja, but there is very little information on it. Alternative spellings are: Jumu (Tindale, O'Grady, Elkin, Fry), Yumi (Roheim), Yumu (Cleland & Johnson, Wurm, AIAS).
Classification of the language:
Pama-Nyungan family, Western Desert group, Wati subgroup
Identification codes:
AIAS: C10 (Pintupi), C11 (Yumu)
Oates 1973: 56.9a (Pintupi), 56.9b (Yumu), 56.9c (Luritja)
Capell: C7 (Pintupi), C16 (Yumu)
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Some speakers are to be found in the Kimberley region, in Halls Creek and Balgo, but most live in the NT, principally at Papunya and outstations, Haast's Bluff, Mt. Liebig area, Kintore and outstations, Kiwirrkurra; also some at Areyonga, Yuendumu, Docker River, Nyirrpi, Hermannsburg, Glen Helen (particularly Luritja).
Milliken, 1972 - 613
Black, 1979 - 800
Green (pers.comm.), 1986 - about 1,000
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Ken Hansen, since 1960s, Papunya
John Heffernan, since early 1980s, Papunya
Ian Green, since 1984, Papunya
Practical orthography:
A practical orthography has been established, and used in the Papunya school; it was devised by Hansen and Hansen. This is the same system that is used in Pitjantjatjarra and Yankunytjatjarra, and similar to the Kukatja variant of the South Kimberley orthography (see page 6), except that underlining is used to indicate retroflexion, instead of an r before the letter.
Word lists:
Hansen & Hansen (1977), Heffernan (1984b)
Textual material:
Heffernan (1984a)
A Pintupi/Luritja text series is under way, under the supervision of a linguist with the Northern Terrtiory Education Department, Ian Green. The texts will be mainly edited classroom texts, but tapes and transcripts will also be available. The Papunya Literature Production Centre will publish the series.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Hansen & Hansen (1978), Heffernan (1984a)
Material available on the language:
See also:
AIAS Selected reading list, Central and Western Desert: The Aranda, Bidjandjarra, Bindubi, Waljbiri. 17p. mimeo. AIAS. 197?
de Graaf, Mark. 1976. Pintupi bibliography. 10p. manuscript. Alice Springs.
Cleland, J.B. & Johnson, T.H. 1933. The ecology of the Aborigines of Central Australia. Royal Society of South Australia. Transactions 57. 113-124.
Ellis, C.J. 1984. Time consciousness of Aboriginal performers. In Kassler, J.C. & Stubington, J. (eds), Problems and solutions: occasional essays in musicology presented to Alice M. Moyle. Sydney: Hale and Iremonger. 149-185.
Hale, K.L. Ikirinytyi (mother-in-law language in Luritja). manuscript.
Hansen, K.C. 1985. Translating for the Pintupi. mimeo. 11pp. Darwin: Nungalinya College.
Hansen, K.C.& Hansen, L.E. 1969. Pintupi phonology. Oceanic Linguistics 8. 153-170.
_____ .1975. The sentence in Pintupi. (First draft, 1970, 58p. SIL; Part 2, Aug. 1971, 56p. SIL)
_____ .1975. Some suggestions for making the transition from Pintupi/Loritja reading to English reading. 12p. mimeo. typescript. SIL.
_____ .1977. Pintupi/Luritja Dictionary. Darwin: SIL. Second edition, Alice Springs: IAD.
_____ . 1978. The core of Pintubi grammar. Alice Springs: IAD.
_____ (with Tjampu Tjapaltjarri) 1980. Pintubi Kinship. 44pp. booklet. Second edition. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development. (1st edition, 1974)
Heffernan, J. 1984a. Papunya Luritja language notes. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
_____ .1984b. [Papunya Luritja word-list.] manuscript.
_____ .1984c. Dialect change amongst the Eastern Pintupi. In Australian Linguistics Society Conference Precirculation papers. Alice Springs: I.A.D. 5-16.
Huttar, G.L. 1976. Notes on Pintupi phonology. Talanya 3. 14-24.
Moyle, R.M. 1979. Songs of the Pintupi. Music in a central Australian society. Canberra: AIAS.
Murtonen, A. 1969. Pintupi statistical and comparative survey of an Australian Western Desert language. Department of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Melbourne. (Also cited as: Outline of a general theory of linguistics.)
Myers, F.R. 1976. "To have and to hold": a study of persistence and change in Pintupi social life. PhD thesis, Bryn Mawr. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
_____ .1982a. Always ask: resource use and land ownership among Pintupi Aborigines of the Australian Western Desert. In Williams, N. & Hunn, E.S. (eds), Resource managers: North American and Australian hunter-gatherers. Boulder: Westview Press for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 173-195.
_____ .1982b. Ideology and experience: the cultural basis of Pintupi life. In Howard, N.C. (ed.), Aboriginal power in Australian society. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. 79-114.
_____ .1986. Pintupi country, Pintupi self: sentiment, place, and politics among the Western Desert Aborigines. Washington & London: Smithsonian Institution Press, and Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
Roberts, M. 1975. Pintupi alphabet - adapted from the Warlpiri (constructed) by Ken Hale. 1p. mimeo. Yayayi.
Tindale, N.B. 1932. Journal of an expedition to Mt Leibig, Central Australia, to do anthropological research. Aug 1932. 374p. + suppl. notes. manuscript.
Language programme:
A bilingual education programme has been running for some years in the Papunya school.
Language learning material:
IAD Pintupi intensive course, 1976, 1977. Introduction 2p., Tape listening sheets 30p., Summary of contents of lessons 30p., Pintupi story material 12p., Contents of tape-recorded drill materials 117p.
Heffernan, J. 1984. Papunya Luritja language notes. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Literacy material:
Too many to mention here. The Papunya Literature Production Centre has already about 200 publications to its credit. A bilingual newsletter is also produced by the Centre. The following is a short selection of teaching material available.
Hansen, K.C. & L.E. 1974. Wangka walytja 1-4. [Our own talk]. NT Department of Education.
_____ .1974. Wakantjaku 1-4 [For the purpose of writing]. NT Department of Education.
_____ .1974. Teachers' guide to Pintupi primers. Sections 1,2. NT Department of Education.
Heysen, S. 1985. Piipa yini tampirrpa tjutatjarra wakalpayi. Nampa kutju. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Morris, K. 1985a. Rodeo. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
_____ .1985b. Ula kutjarra yankupayi. (The boys who go hunting.) Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
_____ .1985c. Yara mulyatanku puluka mantjintja. (Stealing cattle.) Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Phillipus, C. 1985. Tjukurrpa yanamarra, pintapintarringutja. (The tale of the caterpiller that became a butterfly.) Illustrated by H. Clarke. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Rrurrambu, G. 1985. Tjapirunya tjakipirrinya. (Jabiru and emu.) Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Tjupurrula, P. 1985. Tjampitjinpa taraantarringu. (Early contact experiences near Mt. Leibig.) Translated by M. Roberts. Illustrated by D. Nelson. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
There are also many religious materials, including a volume of translations from the Old Testament:
Bible, Old Testament. 1981. Katutjalu watjantja yirrititjanu. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House.

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association made recordings in 80's.
People: 
Ken Hansen, John Heffernan, Lesley Hansen
Indigenous organisations: 
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates300
1984Senate800 (with Luritja)
1990Schmidtincl. with Pitjantjatjara
1996Census380
2001Census591
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-600
2006Census203
2011Census139
2016Census147

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual Less than 1 1
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Heffernan, John. 1996. A learner's guide to Pintupi-Luritja, Alice Springs: IAD Press.

Dictionary: 
Hansen, Kenneth and Hansen, Lesley. 1992. Pintupi/Luritja dictionary (3rd edition). Alice Springs: IAD Press.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati Pintupi-Luritja
Dixon (2002) Pintupi The Western Desert language. dialects: (a) Warnman, (b) Yulparitja, (c) Manjtjiltjara (or Martu Wangka), (d) Kartutjarra, (e) Kukatja, (f) Pintupi, (g) Luritja, (h) Ngaatjatjarr, (i) Ngaanjatjarra, G) Wangkatha, (k) Wangatja, (l) Ngaliya, (m) Pitjantjatjarra, (n) Yankuntjatjarra, (o) Kukarta
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West Pintupi, Ildawongga
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati/Western Desert Pintupi (Bindubi), Ildawongga
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Western Desert Proper Wati Bindubi (Pintupi)
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Western Desert Language Pintubi
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Wati Pintubi