C4: Yankunytjatjara

AIATSIS code: 
C4
AIATSIS reference name: 
Yankunytjatjara

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Name
ABN name
Yankunytjatjara language
ABS name
Yankunytjatjara
Horton name
Yankuntjatjara
Ethnologue name
Yankunytjatjara
ISO 639-3 code
kdd
Tindale name
Jangkundjara
Thesaurus heading language
Yankunytjatjara language C4
Thesaurus heading (old)
Yankunytjatjara language (C4) (NT SG52-16)
Tindale (1974)
Alinjera (means north), Ankundjara, 'Everard Range Tribe', Janggundjara, Jangkundjadjara (extended form), Jangundjara, Jangwundjara (typographical error in first edition), Jan-kundjadjara, Jan-kundjindjara, Jankuntjatara, Jankuntjatjara, Jankunzazara (z = an editorial substitution in Oceania for dj symbol), Kaltjilandjara (a Pitjandjara term for Jangkundjara actually the name of their south-westernmost horde), Nan-kundjara (presumed typographical error in Rept. Aust. Inst. of Ab. Studies 1965:19), Wirtjapakandja (see discussion in chap. 4), Yangundjadjara, Yankunjara
O'Grady et al (1966)
Jangundjara, Jankunzazzara, Wirtjapokandja
Glottocode
yank1247
Other sources
-
Synonyms
Yankuntjatjarra, Yankuntjatjara, Alinjera, Ankundjara, Everard Range Tribe, Jan gundjara, Janggunadjara, Janggundjara, Jangkudjara, Jangkuntjarra, Jangkundjadjara, Jangkundjara, Jangundjara, Jangwundjara, Jankundjadjara, Jankundjara, Jankundjindjara, Jankuntjatara, Jankuntjatjara, Jankunzazara, Jankunzazzara, Kaltjilandjara, Nankundjara, Wirtjapakandja, Wirtjapokandja, Yangkuntjatjara, Yangundjadjara, Yangundyadyara, Yankundyari, Yankunjara, Yangundjara, Yankuntjara, Yangkundjara, Everard Range Tribe', Jan kundjadjara, Jan kundjindjara, Nan kundjara
Comment
Comments: 
This is one of the most well described dialects of the Western Desert language A80.
References: 
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
SA
Location information: 
Musgrave Ranges east of Oparinna, on Officer Creek; north to near Mount Robert, east to Everard Ranges, south to latitude 28° 30' (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Warnman (A62 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Yankunytjatjarra

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:

Jangkudjara (T), Jan-Gundjara (orig. AIAS), Jankundjara (Johnson), Jankuntjatjara (Herrmann), Kulban (tja)tjara (?), Wirtjapakandja (Love), Yangundjara (AIAS), Yangkundjara (SAW), Yankunytjatjarra (Goddard)

Classification of the language:

Western Desert proper, Wati subgroup.

Identification codes:

Oates '73: 56.6b

AIAS: C4

Capell: C15

Present number and distribution of speakers:

Traditionally, Musgrave and Everard Ranges area, north to Lake Amadeus and Basedow Range and south to Lake Meramangye (Tindale).

(Defining the precise location of the Yankunytjatjara is a complex matter.)

Mimili, Amata.

Milliken, 1972 --

Black, 1979 --

Perhaps a hundred speakers.

People who have worked intensively on the language:

Cliff Goddard, ANU.

Practical orthography:

Experimental, developed by Cliff Goddard and Yami Lester, and likely to be adopted.

Word lists:

Hale, Hamilton, Goddard.

Grammar or sketch grammar:

Goddard (?)

Material available on the language:

Bates, Daisy M. Native vocabularies - Central Australian tribes. Typescript copy of Ms. section 12, 2G:8a(2). (ANL-MS365-60/14-36)

---------- Native vocabularies - Central district. Typescript copy of ms. and ms. Section 12, 2G:7. (similar to previous entry)

Hale, Kenneth L. 1960(?). Yankunytyara-English (word list). 82p. xeroxed ms.

Hamilton, Annette. 1971(?). (field notes). ms. (includes flora terms)

Love, J.R.B. 1937(?). Notes on grammar and vocabulary of the Wi:rtjapakandja tribe of the Musgrave Ranges, South Australia. 31p. ts. (SPLA-PRG214/22) (about 800 words listed by English, 7p. grammar)

O'Grady, G.N. & T.J. Klokeid. 1969. Australian Linguistic Classification: A Plea for Coordination of Effort. Oceania 39.4:298-311.

Tindale, N.B. 1931-37. Vocabulary of Pitjandjara, the language of the natives of the Great Western Desert. (Adelaide). 138p. ts. (some words of Pintupi, Ngalia, Kukatja, Nga:dadjara, Wirongu, Janjundjadjara)

---------- 1957. Visit to the north west of South Australia and adjacent parts of Western Australia. Apr-May 1957. 446p. ts., ms. (vocabulary of 80 words of Jangkundjara)

Trudinger, R.M. 1943. Grammar of the Pitjantjatjara dialect, Central Australia. Oceania 13.3:205-223.

Literacy material:

None.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
South Australia. Dept. for Education and Children's Services written a school language program in 1994.
People: 
Cliff Goddard
Indigenous organisations: 
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidtincl. with Pitjantjatjara
1996Census76
2001Census70
2004NILSmany
2005Estimate70
2006Census561
2011Census452
2016Census420

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (Bates)
Grammar: 

Goddard, Cliff. 1993. A learners guide to Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara. Alice Springs: IAD Press. Goddard, Cliff. 1985. A grammar of Yankunytjatjara. Alice Springs: IAD Press.

Dictionary: 
Goddard, Cliff. 1992. Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara to English dictionary. Alice Springs: IAD Press.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati Yankunytjatjara
Dixon (2002) Yankuntjatjarra The Western Desert language. dialects: (a) Warnman, (b) Yulparitja, (c) Manjtjiltjara (or Martu Wangka), (d) Kartutjarra, (e) Kukatja, (f) Pintupi, (g) Luritja, (h) Ngaatjatjarr, (i) Ngaanjatjarra, G) Wangkatha, (k) Wangatja, (l) Ngaliya, (m) Pitjantjatjarra, (n) Yankuntjatjarra, (o) Kukarta
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West Yankuntjara
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Wati/Western Desert Yankuntjara
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Western Desert Proper Wati Yangundjara
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Western Desert Language Yangkundjara
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Wati Jangkundjara