D37: Gunggari

AIATSIS code: 
D37
AIATSIS reference name: 
Gunggari

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Gunggari
Ethnologue name
Kunggari
ISO 639-3 code
kgl
Tindale name
Kunggari
Thesaurus heading language
Gunggari language D37
Thesaurus heading (old)
Kuungkari / Gunggari language (D37) (Qld SG55-15)
Tindale (1974)
Unggari, Kungeri, Kungri, Ungorri, Gungari, Gunggari, Goon-garree, Coongurri, Unggri [sic], Unghi, Congaro, Kogurre, Kogai (language name; note that northern hordes of the Mandandanji also use this term), Ngaragari (Koamu term for language between Bollon and Nebine Creek).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Gungar, Kungeri, Kungri, Ungorri
Glottocode
kung1258
Other sources
Unghi (A.L.P. Cameron, Science of Man Vol. 7, no 2, Mar 22 1904), Unghi, Ungorri (Howitt's Native Tribes of South East Australia, 1904)[Breen, p.c]
Synonyms
Kunggari, Congaro, Coongurri, Goon garee, Goongurri, Gungari, Kogai, Kogurre, Kokaburra, Koongerri, Koonkerri, Koonkurri, Kungeri, Kungri, Kunkari, Kunngkari, Kuungkari, Ngaragari, Tarawalla, Torraburri, Ungerri, Unggari, Unggri, Unghi, Ungorri, Yangeberra, Yangeeberra, Yangeeburra, Yankibura, Yankiburra, Gungar, Nebine Gunggari
Comment
Comments: 
According to Breen (2006 p.c.), Mandandanyi D44, Gunggari and Kogai D38 could all refer to the same language, spoken roughly in the area where Tindale located Mandandanji D44 and Kunggari (D37). The names Gunggari and (possibly) Kogai originate in a Wangkumara L25 word for 'east', 'kungkari', while Mandandanyi comes from the word 'manda' meaning 'go', a word found in the Maranoa-Balonne-Nebine area. From the location of Kogai D38 given by Ridley (1875) and Mathews (1904), it appears 'Kogai tribes' might include Guwamu (Kooma) D33. Tindale (1974) uses Kogai D38 as the name of the language spoken by the Mandandanji D44, Kunggari (D37) and Barrungam D40, but Kite and Wurm (2004) treat Barunggam as a dialect of Waga-Waga E28. In this database, Kogai D38 is treated as a language name and Mandandanyi D44, Gunggari and Guwamu D33 are treated as potential dialects of Kogai, although as Breen says, these terms could just be alternative names of Kogai. Tindale says that the Mandandanji D44 were amalgamated with the Kunggari (D37) in the early days of white occupation. Not to be confused with Kungkari L38.
References: 
  • Barlow, Harriott. 1873. Vocabulary of Aboriginal dialects of Queensland. The Journal of Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 2, pp. 166-175.
  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Holmer, Nils Magnus. 1983. Linguistic survey of south-eastern Queensland: Pacific Linguistics D-54. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Kite, Suzanne, and Stephen A. Wurm. 2004. The Duungidjawu language of southeast Queensland: grammar, texts and vocabulary: Pacific Linguistics 553. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Mathews, Robert Hamilton. 1904. Ethnological notes on the Aboriginal tribes of New South Wales and Victoria. Journal of the Royal Society of NSW 38:203-381. ???
  • Mathews, Robert Hamilton. 1904. Language, organization and initiation ceremonies of the Kogai tribes, Queensland. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 36(1):28-38.
  • Ridley, William. 1875. Kámilarói, and other Australian languages, second edition, revised and enlarged by the author, with comparative tables of words from twenty Australian languages, and songs, traditions, laws and customs of the Australian race. Sydney: Thomas Richards, Government Printer.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
QLD
Location information: 
Upper Nebine and Mungallala creeks from Bonna Vonna and Ballon north to Morven and Mungallala. Extended eastward and partly absorbed the Mandandanji in early historic times (Tindale 1974). The Coongurri come from the Maranoa or perhaps even the Warrego river (Barlow 1873:174). Roma, Mitchell, Taroom, Surat, Charlevilla and Cunnamulla (Holmer 1983:179).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
Gavan Breen, Margaret Sharpe
Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS0
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Maric Kunggari Kunggari [dialects: Related to Birria, which may be extinct.]
Dixon (2002) GREATER MARIC GROUP Maric proper subgroup Gunggari Bidjara* Breen (1973, 1981a) further dialects: Gungabula, Marrganj, Gunja, Wadjigu, Gayiri, Dharawala, Wadjalang, Wadjabangayi, Yiningayi, Yanjdjibara, Mandandanjdji, Guwamu, Gunggari, Ganulu, Gabulbara, Wadja, Nguri
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Maric Mari Gunggari
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Pama-Maric Mari Gunggari
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Pama-Maric Mari Kunggari