D63: Northern Dharawal

AIATSIS code: 
D63
AIATSIS reference name: 
Northern Dharawal

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
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Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
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Thesaurus heading language
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Thesaurus heading (old)
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Tindale (1974)
O'Grady et al (1966)
Gwegal
Glottocode
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Other sources
Gweagal (Collins 1798:454), Guyagal [Wafer & Lissarrague 2008]
Synonyms
Geawegal, Gwegal, Gwiyagal, Gweagal, Guyagal
Comment
Comments: 
Formally listed as Gwiyagal (D63) in Austlang. Eades (1976:3) comments that it seems most unlikely there was any distinct dialect or language called Gwiyagal, suspecting that it was probably the name of a local group. Besold (2012-13:70) reports that Gweagal is the name of one of the social groups residing on the northern arm of Botany Bay (around La Perouse) and whose language is a northern dialect of Dharrawal S59. She also says that Gweagal is possibly a variant spelling of guya-gal 'south-belong', that is 'southerners' of the Kurnell Peninsula. Capell (1970:21) says Gwiyagal (D63) is probably a dialectal form of Thurrawal S59, having a distinct vocabulary. As noted by Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:109, 165-166), Gwiyagal was often confused with Geawegal E1. Consequently, some of the resources identified as Geawegal E1 may actually be Gwiyagal.
References: 
  • Besold, Jutta. 2012-13. Language Recovery of the New South Wales South Coast Aboriginal Languages. Australian National University, PhD thesis. (R01524 MAR)
  • Capell, Arthur. 1970. Aboriginal languages in the south central coast, New South Wales: fresh discoveries. Oceania 41(1), 20-27.
  • Eades, Diana. 1976. The Dharawal and Dhurga languages of the New South Wales south coast: Australian Aboriginal Studies, Research and Regional Studies 8. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Wafer, Jim & Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
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Location information: 
South shore of Botany Bay, possibly limited by St. George's River (Capell, as cited in Oates 1975:199) ... northern arm of Botany Bay (around La Perouse) (Ray Ingrey p.c., in Besold 2012-13:70)
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list
Text Collection
Grammar
Audio-visual
Manuscript note: 
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Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Yuin Gwiyagal
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Wiradjuric Main Wiradjuric Geawegal
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Wiradjuric Main Geawegal