E2: Warrimay

AIATSIS code: 
E2
AIATSIS reference name: 
Warrimay

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Worimi
Ethnologue name
Worimi
ISO 639-3 code
kda
Tindale name
Worimi
Thesaurus heading language
Warrimay language E2
Thesaurus heading (old)
Worimi / Gadang / Kattang language (E2) (NSW SI56-02)
Tindale (1974)
Warrimee, Warramie, Gadang, Kattang (language name), Kutthung, Guttahn, Cottong, Wattung, Watthungk, Kutthack, Gingai, Gringai (a name nominated by Howitt), Gooreenggai, Port Stephens tribe, Pt. Stevens [sic] tribe, Molo (? horde), Bahree (? horde), Karrapath (? horde), Carapath, Warrangine (? horde at Maitland), Wannungine.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Gadang, Kattang, Kutthung, Gutthan, Warrimee
Glottocode
wori1245
Other sources
Warrimay [Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre, Wafer and Lissarrague 2008]
Synonyms
Warimi, Worimi, Gringai, Gadang, Kattang, Kutthung, Gutthan, Warrimee, Warrimi, Warrimay tribe, Molo, Bahree, Karrapath, Carapath, Warrangine, Wannungine
Comment
Comments: 
Tindale (1974:201-202) says that Kattang E67 is the language of Worimi, while Walsh (1981) treats Warimi (E2) as a dialect of Gadang E67. Dixon (2002:xxxiv) also treats Warimi (E2) as a dialect of Gadjang (Kattang) E67. Wafer and Lissarrague's study (2008:167-169) concludes that people who inhabited around Port Stephens called themselves Warrimay (E2) and they spoke their own dialect which is related to Gadhang E67. They treat Gadhang (Taree dialect) E67, Warrimay E2, Guringay E95 and Birrbay E3 as dialects of one language, which they call 'Lower North Coast Language'. Lissarrague (in consultation with the communities) uses the word Gathang E67 as the name of the language spoken by Birrbay E3, Guringay E95 and Warrimay (E2) peoples (2010:1).
References: 
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lissarrague, Amanda. 2010. A grammar and dictionary of Gathang The language of the Birrbay, Guringay and Warrimay. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
Hunter River to Forster near Cape Hawke along coast; at Port Stephens; inland to near Gresford; about Glendon Brook, Dungog, head of Myall Creek and south to Maitland (Tindale 1974). the area around the southern shore of Port Stephens, perhaps extending west towards Maitland (Wafer and Lissarrague 2008:169). Maitland (Branch 1887:349 as cited in Lissarrague 2010:10). The Worimi used to inhabit the Hunter River flats up to about the site of Maitland, and the land lying between the ocean on the one side, the Lower Hunter from its mouth to Maitland on the other, and south of a line drawn roughly from Maitland through Stroud to Tea Gardens and the ocean (Elkin 1932: 359 as cited in Lissarrague 2010: 11). Further investigations have clearly shown that the Gummipingal, Yeerung-gal, and Birroong-Gal were but hordes of the Kattang-speaking tribe called Worimi ... the Maiangal lived along the sea-shore south of Port Stephens, and westward as far as Teleghery Creek; that the Garuagal occupied country adjoining Teleghery Creek and along the lower Hunter, and their territory joined that of the Buraigal, who lived on the right bank of Karuah up to Stroud. The northern side of Port Stephens and left bank of the Karuah was occupied by the Gamipingal. All four were hordes of the Worimi (Enright 1932a: 75 as cited in Lissarrague 2010:11).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list None 0
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Worimi Worimi
Dixon (2002) CENTRAL NEW SOUTH WALES GROUP Awabagal/Gadjang subgroup* Warimi Gadjang (Kattang) Holmer (1966) further dialects: Warimi, Birbay
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Warrimi Gadang [dialects: Gadang, Awabakal, Birbay, Warrimi]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Warrimi
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Warrimi (Warimai)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Worimi