E67: Gathang^

AIATSIS code: 
E67
AIATSIS reference name: 
Gathang^

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Name
ABN name
Kattang language
ABS name
-
Horton name
-
Ethnologue name
Worimi (Kattang)
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Worimi (Kattang)
Thesaurus heading language
Gathang language E67
Thesaurus heading (old)
-
Tindale (1974)
Warrimee, Warramie, Gadang, Kattang (language name), Kutthung, Guttahn, Cottong, Wattung, Watthungk, Kutthack, Gingai, Gringai (a name nominated by Howitt), Gooreenggai, Port Stephens tribe, Pt. Stevens [sic] tribe, Molo (? horde), Bahree (? horde), Karrapath (? horde), Carapath, Warrangine (? horde at Maitland), Wannungine.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Kattang (Kutthung, Gatang) [Holmer 1966] Kutthung [ALRRC] Kattang (Enright), Kut'-thung (Enright), Gadang (Laves) [Lissarrague 2010:9] 'the Lower North Coast language', LNC [Wafer & Lissarrague 2010]
Synonyms
Gadjang, Kattang, Worimi, Gadhang, Gadang, Molo, Bahree, Karrapath, Carapath, Warrangine, Wannungine, Birrbay, Warrimay
Comment
Comments: 
Walsh (1981) uses the term Gadang (E67) as both a dialect and a language name. He lists Warimi E2, Birbay E3, Awabakal S66 and Gadang (E67) as dialects of Gadang. Tindale treats Worimi E2 as a group name whose language is Kattang (E67) (1974:201-2). Holmer describes Kattang (E67) and Thangatti E6 as closely related and quotes language collaborators who consider them dialects of one language, and that 'Kattang country extended ... from Telegraph Point ... to Hawkesbury River, almost as far as Sydney' (1966:1-2). Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:168-169) and also Lissarrague (2010:9-11) provide a summary of different usage of the term Gadhang (E67). Wafer and Lissarrague treat Gadhang (Taree dialect) (E67), Warrimay E2, Guringay (Gringai) E95, and Birrbay E3 as dialects of one language, which they call 'Lower North Coast Language' (2008:167-168). Lissarrague uses the word 'Gathang' (E67) as the name of the language spoken by Birrbay E3, Guringay E95 and Warrimay E2 peoples (2010:1), a practice also used by the online dictionary: http://www.firstvoices.com/fr/GathangGathang: 'We, the Birrbay, Guringay and Warrimay people are connecting with our language, our culture and and our history in reclaiming Gathang, the language of our Ancestors' . Arposio (2008:10) describes Awabakal as a dialect within a larger language group including Gadhang / Kattang E67 to the north and extending southwards from Newcastle down the coast to the northern shores of Botany Bay, reflecting Fraser's (1892) 'Kuringgai' group. Wafer and Lissarrague (2008, 2010) disambiguate the different uses of the term 'Kuringgai', the same as Ku-ring-gai, the north Sydney place name, and similar to Guringay E95. They also address the confusion over the relationship between the 'Hunter River - Lake Macquarie language' (Awabakal S66, Wanarruwa S63, Kuringgai S62 and Kayawaykal E1) and the 'Lower North Coast language' (i.e. Gathang, Birrpay E3, Warrimay E2 and Guringay E95) indicating these are two distinct languages. Dhanggati is described as a separate language (Wafer and Lissarrague, 2008:194).
References: 
  • Arposio, Alex. 2008. A grammar for the Awabakal language. Cardiff, N.S.W. : Arwarbukarl Cultural Resource Association.
  • Capell, Arthur. 1970. Aboriginal languages in the south central coast, New South Wales: fresh discoveries. Oceania 41(1), 20-27.
  • Fraser, John ed. 1892. An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie. Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer.
  • Holmer, Nils Magnus. 1966. An attempt towards a comparative grammar of two Australian languages: Australian Aboriginal Studies 5, Linguistics Series 3, part 1. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Lissarrague, Amanda. 2010. A grammar and dictionary of Gathang: the language of the Birrbay, Guringay and Warrimay. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Kohen, James. 1993. The Darug and their neighbours: the traditional Aboriginal owners of the Sydney region. Blacktown: Darug Link in association with Blacktown and District Historical Society.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
Taree (Wafer and Lissarrague 2008:168). (In AUSTLANG, Kattang is mapped on the basis of this information but not descriptions given below.) ... once spoken on the east coast of NSW, approximately between the Hunter and the Hastings rivers.... According to one informant, the Kattang country extended at one time from Telegraph Point or Port Macquarie, in the north, to the Hawkesbury River in the south, or almost as far as Sydney (Holmer 1966:1). (This includes area occupied by dialects related to Kattang.) ... from the east coast of NSW, approximately between the Hunter and the Hastings rivers (ALRRC). ... spoken from the Wilson River (between Port Macquarie and Kempsey) in the north to the region around Gloucester in the west and Port Stephens in the south (Lissarrague 2010:1).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre is running the Kattang Language Revitalisation program and is currently producing 'A Learner's Guide to Kattang' (2007).
People: 
Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre, Nils Holmer, W.J. Enright, Gerhardt Laves, Amanda Lissarrague
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
Grammar: 

Holmer, Nils. 1966. An attempt towards a comparative grammar of two Australian languages. Canberra: AIAS.

Lissarrague, Amanda. 2010. A grammar and dictionary of Gathang: the language of the Birrbay, Guringay and Warrimay. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language & Culture Cooperative.

Dictionary: 
Holmer, Nils. 1966. An attempt towards a comparative grammar of two Australian languages. Canberra: AIAS. Lissarrague, Amanda. 2010. A grammar and dictionary of Gathang: the language of the Birrbay, Guringay and Warrimay. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language & Culture Cooperative.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Worimi Worimi (Kattang)
Dixon (2002) CENTRAL NEW SOUTH WALES GROUP Awabagal/Gadjang subgroup* Gadjang (Kattang) Gadjang (Kattang) Holmer (1966) further dialects: Warimi, Birbay
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Gadang
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Gadang Gadang [dialects: Gadang, Awabakal, Birbay, Warrimi]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Gadhang (E2)
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Kattang (Gadhang)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)