E7: Gumbaynggirr

AIATSIS Code: 
E7
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Gumbaynggirr

tab group

Name
ABN Name
Kumbainggar language (Previously Gumbaynggir language)
ABS Name
Gumbaynggir
Horton Name
Gumbainggir
Ethnologue name
Kumbainggar
ISO 639-3 code
kgs
Tindale name
Kumbainggiri
Thesaurus heading
Gumbaynggir / Gumbainggirr language (E7) (NSW SH56-11)
Tindale (1974)
Kumbainggeri, Kumbaingir, Kumbaingeri, Kom-baingheri, Kombinegherry, Kumbangerai, Koombanggary, Koombanggherry, Koombainga, Coombangree, Coombyn-gura, Coombyngara, Coombargaree, Kombinegherry, Gumbai?gar, Gunbai?gar, Gumbaingar, Guinbainggiri, Coombagoree, Gumbanggar, Bellinger tribe, Bellingen tribe, Nimboy (a horde), Woolgoolga (a horde), Orara (name of a river).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Kumbainggeri, Kumbaingeri, Kumbainggiri, Kombaingheri, Koombanggary, Koombangghery, Koombainga, Coombangree, Kombinegherry, Gumbainggar
Glottocode
kumb1268
Other sources
Kombinegherry (Palmer 1884), Coombyngura (JCC 1896), Coombagoree (McDougall 1899), Coombangree (McDougall 1901), Kumbanggerri (Mathews ms), Koombanggaree (Mathews ms), Kumbainggerri (Mathews ms 1903a), Kumbinggeri (Mathews 1910), Kumbangerai (Enright 1939), Kumbanggar (Nekes and Worms 1953), Gumbainggar (Smythe 1948/9 Capell 1963 Hoddinott 1967 Wurm 1972), Kumbainggar (Oates and Oates 1970), Kumbainggir (Tindale 1938), Kumbainggiri (Ryan 1964, Tindale 1974) [Eades 1979:249] Gumbangir [ALRRC]
Synonyms
Gumbaynggir
Kumbainggar
Gumbainggir
Baanbay
Banbai
Gamlamang
Jiegera
Kumbainggiri
Yaygir
Yuungay
Bellingen tribe
Bellinger tribe
Cambanggarie
Coombagoree
Coombangree
Coombargaree
Coombyngara
Coombyngura
Coombyugura
Cumbainggar
Guinbainggiri
Gumbainggirr
Gumbainga
Gumbainggar
Gumbanga
Gumbanggar
Gumbanggeri
Gumbanjaree
Gumbayngir
Gunbainygar
Kombaingheri
Kombinegherry
Koombabgghery
Koombainga
Koombanggary
Koombanggherry
Koombangi
Kumbaingeri
Kumbainggeri
Kumbainggir
Kumbainggirri
Kumbaingir
Kumbangerai
Nimboy
Orara
Woolgoolga
Koombangghery
Kumbanggerri
Koombanggaree
Kumbainggerri
Kumbinggeri
Kumbanggar
Kom baingheri
Coombyn gura
Gumbaigar
Gunbaigar
Gumbaingar
Comment
Language comment
Sources vary in their descriptions of Gumbaynggirr dialects. According to Mathews (in Smythe, 1948:4) there are no dialects, but Smythe insists that there are at least two, a northern and a southern, evidenced by both a comparison of data and speakers’ perceptions. Eades (1979:246) details the four dialects reported across the sources, noting that there is little supporting evidence for them: a northern dialect (Smythe); Ba:nbay E8 in the west (Mathews); Gambalamam E85 on the Dorrigo Plateau (Crowley) and Southern Gumbaynggir (on which Eades’ work is based). Morelli's work (Muurbay, 2001) is based on the southern dialect spoken from the Bellinger River to the Nambucca River and relies on the earlier work of Eades (1979). Morelli (Muurrbay 2001:8) indicates there were several dialects of Gumbaynggirr between Nambucca in the south to the Mid-Clarence region in the north, travelling west as far as Guyra on the Tablelands the region of the Baanbay E8 dialect. Nymboidian E98 (related to Baanbay) and the Northern Coastal Gumbaynggir dialects including Magan.girr and the Grafton dialect were also recorded by Laves, along with the Wolgoolga-Nana Glen dialect, with mention of an Orara dialect. Gambalaman E85 was spoken in the Dorrigo region. The place name Guyra is a corruption of gayaar 'white cockatoo'; Dundurrabin is the Gumbayngirr word dandarrbiin 'many stringy barks', which in turn is the basis for Dorrigo, dandarrga 'string bark tree'. Morelli later describes one language with three mutually intelligible dialects which survived white incursions. He describes them as ‘Northern Lowlands to be found, for example, at Grafton; Southern (E7), bordered by the Nambucca River; and Nymboidan E98, which graded into the Baanbay E8 of the New England Tablelands that reached to around Guyra and Tingha' (2008:ix). Wafer and Lissarrague interpreting Morelli’s 2001 discussion of Gumbaynggirr dialects (Muurrbay 2001), propose five primary dialects: Northern, Middle and Southern, with a Coastal/Inland division for Northern and Middle regions. They later detail further dialects, based on the Muurrbay (2001:7) map, noting the uncertain identity of these with respect to their primary five dialects: Jambiny, Garrigalgay, Dawaalam, Mirragalgi, Yuraarla, Marraambilambari, Gurubida and Budaabang/Budaabangbari (2008:357-8). Given the uncertainty around the number and identity of Gumbaynggirr dialects, only the more commonly reported names are included in the Thesaurus: Baanbay E8, Nymboidan E98 and Gambalamam E85.
References

Eades, Diana. 1979. Gumbaynggir. In Handbook of Australian languages vol. 1, eds R.M.W. Dixon and B. J. Blake, pp. 244-361. Canberra: ANU Press.
Smythe, W. E. 1948. Elementary grammar of the Gumbaingar language (North Coast, N.S.W.), Oceania Monograph no. 8. Sydney: The Australian National Research Council.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
MacPherson, John. 1904. Ngarrabul and other Aboriginal tribes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v.29, pt.4, 1904 : p.677-684.
Muurrbay Language and Culture Co-operative. 2001. A Gumbaynggir Language Dictionary. Canberra : Aboriginal Studies Press.
Morelli, Steve. 2008. Gumbaynggirr dictionary & learner's grammar = Gumbaynggirr bijaarr jandaygam, ngaawa gugaarrigam. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language & Culture Co-operative.
Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Cooperative. 2001. A Gumbaynggir language dictionary = Gumbayngirr bijaarr jandaygam. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
NSW
Location information
... along the north coast of NSW between Nambucca Heads and Grafton. Extend inland as far as the Great Dividing Range (Eades 1979). ... an area of 4,200 square miles extending from Nambucca in the south to the Clarence River in the north, and from the sea coast inland as far as a line from Ebor to Dumpe, with the exception of a small area occupied by the Jeigir between Maclean, Yamba and Wooli (Smythe 1948 - 1950). ... the area from Grafton south to Bowraville and Nambucca Heads (ALRRC) Lower course of Nymboida River and across the range toward Urunga, Coff (Korff) Harbour, and Bellingen; at South Grafton and Glenreagh; along the coast south from near One Tree Point; at Woolgoolga and Nambucca Heads (Tindale 1974). The Nymboi River, Newton Boyd, and south-westerly almost to Wollomombi (Macpherson 1904: 678). [Gumbaynggirr's] territory goes from Nambucca Heads to Red Rock on the coast, then inland north of Grafton on the Clarence River to a western border stretching in an arc from Deepwater and Glen Innes then south to Ben Lomond, Guyra, and Wollomombi. (Morelli 2008:243).
Maps
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Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
32.533
NILS endangerment grade
0
Documentation
Document Score: 
12
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listMedium (100-200 pages)3
Text CollectionMedium (100-200 pages)3
GrammarSmall grammar (100-200 pages)3
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
Eades, Diana. 1979. Gumbaynggir. In Handbook of Australian languages vol1, eds. R.M.W. Dixon and B. Blake, 244-361. Canberra; Australian National University Press. Morelli, Steve. 2008. Gumbaynggirr dictionary and learner's grammar = Gumbaynggirr bijaarr jandaygam, ngaawa gugaarrigam. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language & Culture Co-operative. Smythe, W.E. 1918. Elementary grammar of the Gumbaingar language (North Coast, N.S.W.). The Oceania Monographs, No. 8. Sydney: The Australian National Research Council.
Dictionary: 
Muurrbay Aboriginal and Culture Cooperative. 2001. A Gumbaynggir language dictionary = Gumbayngirr bijaarr jandaygam. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press. Morelli, Steve. 2008. Gumbaynggirr dictionary and learner's grammar = Gumbaynggirr bijaarr jandaygam, ngaawa gugaarrigam. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language & Culture Co-operative.
Programs
Activities: 
The Gumbaynggir language is taught at several schools and pre-schools. Adult education courses are also offered (2006). The Summer School for Gamilaraay language was held in January 2007.
People: 
Diana Eades, B. Fillery, W.G. Hoddinott, Muurrbay Aboriginal Language & Culture Co-operative, Gerhardt Laves, W.E. Smythe, Terry Crowley, R.H. Mathews
Indigenous organisations: 
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Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganGumbaynggaricGumbainggarKumbainggarKumbainggar [dialects: related to Yaygirr]
Dixon (2002)CENTRAL EAST COAST GROUPGumbaynggirr/Yaygirr subgroupGumbaynggirrGumbaynggirr* Smythe (1948/9), Eades (1979) further dialects: Baanbay, Gambalamam; possibly also Ngambaa
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganGumbaynggirGumbaynggir
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganGumbaynggiricGumbaynggirGumbaynggirGumbaynggir [dialects: Baanbay, Gambalamam]
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganGumbainggaricGumbainggarGumbaynggir
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganGumbainggaricGumbainggarGumbainggar
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganKumbainggaricKumbainggar