G34: Yukulta / Ganggalidda

AIATSIS Code: 
G34
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Yukulta / Ganggalidda

tab group

Name
ABN Name
-
ABS Name
-
Horton Name
Ganggalida (Jokula)
Ethnologue name
Lardil [Yugulda]
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Jokula
Thesaurus heading
Yukulta / Gangalidda language (G34) (Qld SE54-05)
Tindale (1974)
Jugul (valid variation), Jugulda, Jogula, Jokala, Jokul, Jokal, Iukala, Yukula, Yookala, Eugoola, Jungulda (Janggal term), Kanggaleida (Janggal term), Yangarella, Engarilla.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Iukala (Sharpa), Eugoola (Curr), Jokulta (Tindale and Curr), Jakula (O'Grady) [Keen 1972]
Synonyms
Lardil
Yakula
Jugul
Jugulda
Jogula
Jokala
Jokul
Jokal
Iukala
Yukula
Yookala
Eugoola
Jungulda
Kanggaleida
Yangarella
Engarilla
Comment
Language comment
Gangalidda (G34) is also known as Yukulta (G34). Languages from the North Wellesley Islands and adjoining mainland include Yukulta (G34), Kayardild G35, Lardil G38 and Yangkaal G37 which O’Grady – Voegelin – Voegelin (1966) classify in the ‘Tangkic’ group (tangka means ‘person’ in all four languages). Evans classifies Kayardild G35 and Yangkaal G37 as dialects of one language (South Wellesley), while Yukulta (G34) and Nguburindi G19 are dialects of a separate, but closely related language (Mainland). Lardil (Mornington Island) is further removed, having a historical relationship with Proto-Tangkic (1995:9, 12). Breen also concludes that Ngubirindi G19 is a dialect of the same language as Yukulta (G34), based on his comparison of data (PMS 221). The Tangkic languages have genetic affiliation with the non-Pama Nyungan languages of Arnhem Land, but long term contact with Pama Nyungan languages led to morphological and lexical borrowing, and a 'typological convergence ... away from the non-Pama-Nyungan headmarking, prefixing type to a fairly typical Pama-Nyungan type ... (Evans, 1995: 30, 38). Blake defines the Tangkic group (Yukulta (G34) Lardil, G38, Kayardild G35) as non-Pama-Nyungan languages, based on the pronoun forms (1988:39). nb Ganggalidda G30 is a duplicated entry of (G34).
References

Blake, Barry. 1988. Redefining Pama-Nyungan in Evans, Nicholas and Steve Johnson (eds) Aboriginal Linguistics. Armidale: University of New England.
Breen, Gavan. 1973. A note on Ngubirindi. (PMS 221)
Dymock, John. 1977. The first whitemen. Journal of the Anthropological Society of South Australia, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 4-10. (SF 57.5/1)
Evans, Nicholas. 1995. A grammar of Kayardild, with historical-comparative notes on Tangkic: Mouton Grammar Library 15. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
Osborne, Charles Roland. 1966. Jugula elicited material. PMS 1358
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
QLD
Location information
Gulf country of north-west Queensland opposite the Wellesly Islands. Did not stretch as far south as the Nicholson River but went south-west as far as the start of the hilly country and south-east as far as a series of creeks and waterholes - Wild Horse Creek, Lily waterhole, Flying-fox waterhole and Tarpot Creek. Burketown was not Yukulta country but Minkin country. For the eastern boundary, some say that it went to the western banks of the Albert River and others say that it did not cross the Nicholson river (Keen 1972). from about Westmoreland, east along the coast to Burketown (Osborne PMS 1358). The general associations extended on the coast from Massacre Inlet to just west of Gin Arm Creek. From the coast, they extended inland to the boundary with the Nicholson drainage. Eastward limits: Gin Arm Creek and lower Lily Creek were associated with Minkin. Westward limits: Westmoreland homestead was associated with Gunindirri. Just to the east of this, associations changed to Ganggalida. Hell's Gate was associated with Ganggalida (Harvey ASEDA 802). From Burketown to Hann Creek and Massacre Inlet; on the coast west of Cliffdale Creek; inland nearly to Nicholson River; east to Albert River mouth from near Escott (Tindale 1974).
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
40-4
NILS endangerment grade
0
Documentation
Document Score: 
10
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listSmall (20-100 pages)2
Text CollectionLess than 20 pages1
GrammarLarge grammar (more than 200 pages)4
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
Keen, Sandra. 1972. A description of the Yukulta language - an Australian Aboriginal language of north-west Queensland, Monash University: MA.
Dictionary: 
Keen, Sandra 1983. Yukulta. In Handbook of Australian Languages, vol.3. eds. RMW Dixon and B Blake, 190-304. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Sandra Keen
Indigenous organisations: 
Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganLardilLardil [Yugulda]Lardil [dialects: Related to Kayardild, Nyangga, Yugulda.]
Dixon (2002)TANGKIC SUBGROUP*Kayardild/Yukulta subgroup*YukultaYukulta (or Yukulu, Kangkalita) Keen (1983) further dialect: Nguburindi
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganTangicYugulda
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganTangicYugulda
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganTangicYugulda
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganTangkicYakula (Yugula, Ganggalida, Yanggal)
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganTangkicJakula