G35: Kayardild

AIATSIS Code: 
G35
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Kayardild

tab group

Name
ABN Name
-
ABS Name
Kayardild
Horton Name
Gayardilt
Ethnologue name
Kayardild
ISO 639-3 code
gyd
Tindale name
Kaiadilt
Thesaurus heading
Kayardild / Kaiadilt language (G35) (Qld SE54-06)
Tindale (1974)
Kaiadil, ['Ka:radil(t)] (a modern Lardiil version of name), ['Kaija:dil] (a modern Janggal version), Gajadild, Gaiardilt, Maldanunda (['mala] = ['malda] = sea), Malununde, Malununda (original Lardiil tribe name for Bentinck Island, Maldanunda (original Janggal name for), Marlanunda, Mardunung, Madunun, 'Bentinck Islanders.'
O'Grady et al (1966)
Malununda
Glottocode
kaya1319
Other sources
Guyadilt (uniting church mission cassette) [Evans 1995:8]
Synonyms
Gayardilt
Kaiadilt
Bentinck Islanders
Gaiardilt
Gaja
dilt
Gajadild
Gajardild
Gajardilt
Gaya
Gayadilt
Kaiadil
Kaiadilt Madunun
Maldanunda
Malununda
Malununde
Mardunung
Marlanunda
Gayardild
Guyadilt
Madunun
Comment
Language comment
Languages from the North Wellesley Islands and adjoining mainland include Kayardild (G35), Yangkaal G37, Yukulta G34 and Lardil G38 which O’Grady – Voegelin – Voegelin (1966) classified in the ‘Tangkic’ group (tangka means ‘person’ in all four languages). Evans classifies Kayardild (G35) and Yangkaal G37 as dialects of one language (South Wellesley), while Yukulta G34 and Nguburindi G19 are dialects of a separate, but closely related language (Mainland). Lardil (Mornington Island) is further removed,having a historical relationship with Proto-Tangkic (1995:9, 12). The Tangkic languages have genetic affiliation with the non-Pama Nyungan languages of Arnhem Land, but long term contact with Pama Nyungan languages led to morphological and lexical borrowing, and a 'typological convergence ... away from the non-Pama-Nyungan headmarking, prefixing type to a fairly typical Pama-Nyungan type ... (Evans, 1995: 30, 38). Blake defines the Tangkic group (Yukulta (G34) Lardil, G38, Kayardild G35) as non-Pama-Nyungan languages, based on the pronoun forms (1988:39). Evans uses the spelling Kayardild for the language and Kaiadilt for the people (1995:8).
References

Blake, Barry. 1988. Redefining Pama-Nyungan in Evans, Nicholas and Steve Johnson (eds) Aboriginal Linguistics. Armidale: University of New England.
Evans, Nicholas. 1995. A grammar of Kayardild, with historical-comparative notes on Tangkic: Mouton Grammar Library 15. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
QLD
Location information
The Kaiadilt's traditional lands comprised the South Wellesley Island: Bentinck Island, Sweeers Island, several smaller islands, and sometimes Allen Island (Evans 1995:9). The South Wellesley Islands extending west to Allen Island which was shared with Yangkaal (Harvey ASEDA 802). Bentinck Island and surrounding reefs; west to Allen Island (Tindale 1974).
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
2268
NILS endangerment grade
2
Documentation
Document Score: 
13
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLarge (more than 200 pages)4
Text CollectionSmall (20-100 pages)2
GrammarLarge grammar (more than 200 pages)4
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
Evans, Nick. 1995. A grammar of Kayardild: with historical-comparative notes on Tangkic. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Dictionary: 
Evans, Nick. 1992. Kayardild dictionary and thesaurus: a vocabulary of the language of the Bentinck Islanders, North-west Queensland. Melbourne: University of Melbourne.
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Nick Evans, Frank Woolston, Erich Round, Louis Goldstein
Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganTangicKayardild
Dixon (2002)TANGKIC SUBGROUP*Kayardild/Yukulta subgroup*KayardildKayardild Evans (1995a) further dialect: Yangkaal
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganTangicGayardilt
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganTangicGayardilt
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganTangicGayardild
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganTangkicGayardilt
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganTangkicGayardilt