Martu Wangka (A6 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).
8.11 Jaru / Djaru
Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Daru (O'Grady), Djaro (Worms), Djaru (Tsunoda, Berndt, Capell, Oates, O'Grady, Kaberry, AIAS), Dyaro (Worms), Dyaru (Kofod), Jarrau (Matthews), Jaruru , Tjaru (Douglas, Harrison), Waringarri
Jaru is in a dialect relationship with Nyininy (see section 8.12). Jaru and Nyininy are said to be closely related to Wanyjirra (see section 8.13).
Classification of the language:
Northern Western Desert type, Ngumpin subgroup
Oates 1973: 59.3a
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Hall's Creek area, (including Moola Bulla, Lamboo, Ruby Plains), south almost to Billiluna, Gordon Downs (until 1981), Nicholson, Flora Valley.
Oates, (1973) - 246 adults (Hudson, June 1973)
Black (1979) - 250
Tsunoda (1981) - nearly 200 first language speakers, and possibly over 100 second language speakers (including those with a passive knowledge only)
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Tsunoda, since mid-1970s, fieldwork based in Halls Creek.
None yet established and in frequent use. The South Kimberley orthography would be suitable, and has been trialled to some extent by a speaker working for the Kimberley Language Resource Centre. However, it seems likely that a different system will be used in the language programme in the Ringers Soak Catholic School.
Hudson (1973a,1973b), Cooling & Cooling (1968), O'Grady (1959)
Tsunoda (1978, 1981), Moses (1986)
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Tsunoda (1978, 1981)
Material available on the language:
(See also under Nyininy and Wanyjirra.)
Capell, A. 1940. The classification of languages in north and north-west Australia. Oceania 10. 241-272, 404-433.
_____ .1955. Forchheimer and the pronoun. Oceania 25. 283-291.
Capell, A. & Elkin, A.P. 1937. The languages of the Kimberley Division. Oceania 8. 216-245.
Cooling, G. & Cooling, D. 1968. The phonemes of Djaru. 38p.typescript. Kununurra: SIL.
Hudson, J. 1973a. Gurindji word list for a two-week survey (probably strongly influenced by Djaru). 12p. typescript. SIL. (AIAS Library has copy)
_____ .1973b. Two Djaru word lists. 24p. SIL. (AIAS Library has copy)
Kaberry, P.M. 1937. Notes on the languages of the east Kimberley, North-West Australia. Oceania 8/1. 90-103.
Moses, R. 1986. The first white man comes to Nicholson River. In Hercus, L. & Sutton, P. (eds), This is what happened: historical narratives by Aborigines. Canberra: AIAS. 41-46.
O'Grady, G. N. 1957-58. Material on suffixing languages of W.A. manuscript. (AIAS Ms 320)
_____ .1959. Significance of the circumcision boundary in Western Australia. BA (Hons) thesis, University of Sydney.
Tsunoda, T. 1975-1979. Djaru field notes. 24 pts. c.2564pp. manuscript. AIAS Ms 1381. (A1;B4)
_____ .1978. The Djaru language of Kimberley, Western Australia. PhD thesis, Monash University. (AIAS Ms 1133).
_____ .1981a. The Djaru language of Kimberley, Western Australia. Canberra: PL, B-78.
_____ .1981b. Pronominal suffixes in Djaru. Journal of Asian and African Studies. 21. 130-142.
_____ .1981. Split case marking patterns in verb types Linguistics 19. 389-438.
Worms, E.A. 1938. Foreign words in some Kimberley tribes in North-Western Australia. Oceania 8. 458-462.
_____ .1957. Australian mythical terms: their etymology and dispersion. Anthropos 52. 732-768.
Since early 1987 the Red Hill Community (Halls Creek) and Ringers Soak Community (Gordon Downs) have had language programmes operating in their schools.
Language learning material:
McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.
AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.