K23: Andedja

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Kimberley Area Languages, nec (Andajin)
Horton name
Worla (Andajin)
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Ngarinjin (Andidja), Wilawila (Andidja)
Tindale (1974)
Gular (name given to hordes between Karunjie and Gibb River Stations by Forrest River people; ['kular] = west), Ungarinjin, Un?arinjin (as spoken by a Worora), Warnarinjin, Angarinjin, Ngarinjin (as articulated by Moreng), Wangarinjinu (language name), Arawari (lit. 'southeastwards,' a Worora name), Ingarinjindja (a man of the tribe), Njingarinjanja (a woman of the tribe), Arkarin-jindja (people of the tribe), Oladjau (language name used by Miriwung tribe; their contacts are through the Kitja to Ola people), Marangana (name applied to all people who speak like the Ngarinjin), Walmidi (Forrest River name), Andedja (northern term), Andidja, Narrinyind, Ungarinyin, Ungarin-jen, Ngaring-ngyan, Ngerringun, Kandjalngari (name of a horde on northern boundary of tribe) for Ngarinjin. Wular: (said to be a language name), Taib (horde on Carson River, also claims to be of Miwa tribe), Wulu, Taibange (member of Taib), Munumbara (horde on headwaters of Forrest River), Munumburu, Kalari: (horde on middle Drysdale River), Andedja (horde on southern tributaries of upper Forrest River), Andidja, Andadja, Piarngongo (horde at Mount Beatrice; there is also a horde of Ola tribe of Purunor moiety, and same name, south and southwest of Karunjie), ? Kundjanan, Kandjanan, ? Ullumbuloo for Wilawila.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Other sources
Wandidja, Wulandidja, Andidjari [Glasgow PMS 656] A(r)dayin, A(r)ndanyin, Arawarri [Saunders 2008 p.c.]
Andadjin, Kimberley Area Languages, Andajin, Worla, Ola, Walajangarri, Andidja, Kular, Andidja/Andidjara, Ngarinjin, Wilawila, Wandidja, Wulandidja, Andidjari, Gular, Ungarinjin, Unarinjin, Warnarinjin, Angarinjin, Wangarinjinu, Arawari, Ingarinjindja, Njingarinjanja, Arkarin jindja, Oladjau, Marangana, Walmidi, Narrinyind, Ungarinyin, Ungarin jen, Ngaring ngyan, Ngerringun, Kandjalngari for Ngarinjin, Wular:, Taib, Wulu, Taibange, Munumbara, Munumburu, Kalari:, Andadja, Piarngongo, Kundjanan, Kandjanan, Ullumbuloo for Wilawila, Worrorran

Previously Andajin was linked to the code K23 and Andidja was treated as an alternative name. Although information is sketchy and McGregor (1988) lists Andidja as a member of the Worrorran language group and an alternative name for Andajin, Saunders (2007 p.c.) believes the two names do not refer to the same language.

Andajin K64, which appears more recently in the records, is treated as closely related to Ngarinyin K18 by Dixon 2002, McGregor and Rumsey 2009 and McGregor 1988 (among others), and is generally associated with the King Leopold Ranges area of WA. According to Saunders (2007 p.c.), Andajin is in a dialectal relationship with Ngarinyin K18 and Wurla K43. Ngarinyin is described as 'heavy' and Wurla and Andajin are described as 'light'. Andedja appears in the earlier sources (e.g. Elkin 1933, Kabery 1935) and is associated with the Forrest River region. Glasgow, Hocking and Steiner (PMS 656) say that Andidja (K23) has been variously linked to Wumbulgari K32? and Gunin K36, Wunambal K22, and Wuladja K43?.

Capell (1963) says it is a dialect of the 'Forrest River' language, along with Gwini K36, Walar K45, Jeidji K32, Manungu K46 and Wembria K31, and Oates (1975) links Andidja / Andidjara (K23) to Wunambal K22. Tindale (1974) does not mention 'Andajin' but associates Andedja / Andidja with two different identities, as a variant name for both Wilawila K35 and Ngarinjin K18. Saunders (p.c.) says both Andajin and Andidja have been referred to as Arawari K28, which is a directional term meaning 'south' or 'south-east'.

As K23 was originally assigned to Andidja, this code assignment has been restored and a new record and code for Andajin K64 has been created.


  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Elkin, A.P. 1933. Totemism in north-western Australia. Reprinted from Oceania, vol. 3, no. 3; vol. 3, no. 4, vol. 4, no. 1, vol. 4, no. 2. (RB E438.00/T1)
  • Glasgow, David. Report [to A.I.A.S.] on surveys of languages and dialects of the north - east Kimberleys, typescript. (PMS 656).
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • Kabery, Phyllis. 1935. The Forrest River and Lyne River tribes of NorthWest Australia: a report on fieldwork. Oceania, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. [408]-436. (RS 57/11)
  • McGregor, William. 1988. Handbook of Kimberley languages, vol. 1: General information: Pacific Linguistics C-105. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • McGregor, William and Alan Rumsey. 2009. Worrorran revisited: the case for genetic relations among languages of the Northern Kimberley region of Western Australia, Pacific Linguistics 600. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

... country a fair way to the north-east of Andajin (Saunders 2007 p.c.) Wyndham Reserve (Glasgow, Hocking & Steiner, PMS 656)

Forrest River district (Elkin 1933).



Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Bidungu (A40 ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

5.10 Andajin

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Andajin (Hudson & McConvell), Andidja (AIAS, Oates & Oates)
Classification of the language:
Worrorran family
Identification codes:
Oates 1973: (not included) (Oates & Oates 1970: 3Kr)
Capell: K8
Present number and distribution of speakers:
People who have worked intensively on the language:
No one
Practical orthography:
Word lists:
None known
Textual material:
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Material available on the language:
Nothing known
Language programme:
Language learning material:
Literacy material:

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Indigenous organisations: 
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list None 0
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
Not available
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)   NORTH KIMBERLEY AREAL GROUP   Andadjin Ungarinjin Rumsey (1982a) further dialects: Guwidj (Orla), Waladja, Ngarnawu, Andadjin, Munumburru, Wolyamidi, Waladjangarri
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981)          
Oates (1975)       Andidja/Andidjara  
Wurm (1972)          
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)