L27: Wangkangurru

AIATSIS code: 
L27
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wangkangurru

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Wangkangurru
Horton name
Wangkangurru
Ethnologue name
Wangganguru
ISO 639-3 code
wgg
Tindale name
Wongkanguru
Thesaurus heading language
Wangkangurru language L27
Thesaurus heading (old)
Wangkangurru / Wangganguru language (L27) (SA SG53-12)
Tindale (1974)
Wangkanguru (Jangkundjara pronunciation), Wong-kongaru, Wonkanguru, Wonkonguru, Ongkongura, Wong-kaooroo, Wonkgongaru, Wonkongaru, Wonkaoora, Wongo-nooroo, Wonkongnuru, Wonkagnurra, Wonkanooroo, Unganoora, Kanguru (short form of their name), Gongaru, Partama (name given by Kukatja), Wingkungira (Iliaura name).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Wangkanguru, Wongkongaru, Wonkanguru, Wonkonguru, Ongkonguru, Wonkaooroo, Wonggongaru, Wonkongaru, Wonkaoora, Wongonooroo, Wonkongnuru, Wonkagnurra, Wychinga,
Glottocode
wang1290
Other sources
Synonyms
Arabana/Wangkangurru, Wangganguru, Wanggangurru, Wongkangurru, Gongaru, Kanguru, Ongkongura, Ongkonguru, Partama, Unganoora, Wanganguru, Wangganguri, Wangkanguru, Wingkungira, Wonganguru, Wongganguru, Wonggongaru, Wongkaguru, Wongkanguru, Wongkaooroo, Wongkongaru, Wongonooroo, Wonkagnurra, Wonkanguru, Wonkanooroo, Wonkaoora, Wonkaooroo, Wonkgongaru, Wonkongaru, Wonkongnuru, Wonkonguru, Wychinga, Wong kongaru, Wong kaooroo, Wongo nooroo
Comment
Comments: 

Hercus (1994:6) says that, from a speaker perspective, though not technically, there are two distinct languages: Arabana L13 and Wangkangurru. For the most part they are mutually intelligible, though they are substantially different. Wangkagurru has two main dialects, Mikiri-nganha L51 and Wangkatyaka L54, and a third one of more recent origin, Eastern Wangkangurru L67 (Hercus 1994:6-7). Wangkangurru forms part if the Karnic language group and is in a close relationship with Arabana L13.

 

References: 
  • Hercus, Luise Anna. 1994. A grammar of the Arabana-Wangkangurru language, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia: Pacific Linguistics C-128. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
SA
Location information: 

... the area to the west and north of Lake Eyre (for Arabana and Wangkanguru) (Hercus 1994:6). On Mount Dare; at Blood Creek; east on Macumba Creek; on lower Finke River; in southern portion of Arunta (Simpson) Desert; southeast to Kallakoopah Creek and the Warburton; at Atna Hill (Tindale 1974). (On Bowern's map (2001), it extends further to the north.)

Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

BANYJIMA (A53 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Wangkanguru

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Wangganguru, Wanganuru (Hercus,Oates), Wangga-nguru (Blake), Wangkanguru (IAD), Wongganguru (Breen), Wongkanguru (Reuther, Flierl)
Classification of the language:
Karnic Group, Marla subgroup (formerly Arabanic)
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 73b
AIAS: L.027
Capell: L45
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Less than ten knowledgeable speakers (Hercus 1973).
Black, 1979 --
Traditionally, north of Lake Eyre between Diamantina and Macumba Rivers.
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Luise Hercus, ANU.
Practical orthography:
None established; Hercus uses an orthography with only one diacritic (for retroflex flap).
Word lists:
Hercus, Breen.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Reuther, Hercus (ms.).
Material available on the language:
Austin, Peter. 1981. A grammar of Diyari, South Australia. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Breen, J.G. Wangganguru tape transcripts. (not much) (pMs 2721 AIAS)
---------- & L.A. Hercus, ed. [1974?]. Three central Australian grammars: Diari, Jandruwanta, Wongkanguru. Diari, 25+3p. Incorporates L.A. Hercus and T. Schwarzschild's 1972 translation from German of Reuther (1899). Revised June 1980. ts. AIAS.
Flierl, J. 1879. Dieri and Wongkanguru grammars. ms. Lutheran Archives, Adelaide.
Hercus, Luise A. 1971. Arabana and Wanganuru traditions. Oceania 42.2:94-109. (phoneme system, texts of myths)
---------- 1976. Arabana-Wangganguru, in Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages, ed. by R.M.W. Dixon. AIAS.
---------- 1977. Tales of Ngadu-dhagalhi (Rib-bone Billy). Aboriginal History 1.1:53-76.
---------- 1979. In the margins of an Arabana-Wangganguru dictionary: the loss of initial consonants. Pacific Linguistics C.54:621-52 (Australian Linguistic Studies, ed. by S.A. Wurm.)
---------- 1980. 'How we danced the Mudlunga': memories of 1901 and 1902. Aboriginal History 4.1(June):5-32.
---------- (forthcoming) Afghan stories. Aboriginal History. (stories in Arabana and Wangkanguru)
Reuther, J.G. 1899. Diari Grammar. ms. dated 6 July 1899. Translated by L.A. Hercus and T. Schwarzschild -- see Breen & Hercus.
Literacy material:
No.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 

0

People: 
Gavan Breen, Luise Hercus, Bernhard Schebeck, Hale & O'Grady
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates>10
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate5
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census3

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Hercus, Luise. 1994. A grammar of the Arabana-Wangkangurru language Lake Eyre Basin, South: Pacific LInguistics C128. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Dictionary: 

Hercus, Luise. Machine-readable files of Arabana and Wangkangurru vocabulary, ASEDA 0238.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Karna Wangganguru  
Dixon (2002)   LAKE EYRE BASIN AREAL GROUP North and west Lake Eyre Basin group Blake and Breen (1971) Arabana/Wangkangurru Arabana/Wangkangurru Hercus (1994) further dialects: Pilta-Palta, Wangkakupa, Midlaliri, Mikiri-nganha
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Karnic   Wangganguru  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Arabana-Wangganguru Wangganguru  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Karnic Narla Wangganguru  
Wurm (1972)          
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Arabanic   Wongkanguru