L6: Parnkalla

AIATSIS Code: 
L6
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Parnkalla

tab group

Name
ABN Name
Barngarla Language (Previously Parnkarla language)
ABS Name
-
Horton Name
Banggarla
Ethnologue name
Banggarla
ISO 639-3 code
bjb
Tindale name
Pangkala
Thesaurus heading
Parnkalla / Barngarla / Bungala language (L6) (SA SI53-04)
Tindale (1974)
Banggala (valid alternative pronunciation), Bahn-gala, Pankalla, Parkalla (typographical error), Parnkalla, Parn-kal-la, Parnkala, Punkalla, Bangala, Bungela, Pan-karla, Punkirla, Bungeha (probably misreading of Bungela), Kortabina (place name), Willeuroo (basic meaning 'west,' or 'westerner'), Arkaba-tura (men of Arkaba, a place in the northeast corner of tribal territory where they met Jadliaura people), Wanbirujurari ('men of the seacoast'; said of the southern hordes by those in the north), Willara, Kooapudna (horde around Franklin Harbour), Kooapidna.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Pankarla, Parnkala, Bangala, Banggala, Bahanga-la, Pankalla, Punkalla, Bungela, Bungeha, Kortabina
Glottocode
bang1339
Other sources
Pangkarla [Hercus 1994]
Synonyms
Banggarla
Bangalla
Arkaba tura
Ba:Nggala
Ba:njgala
Bahanga la
Bahngala
Bangala
Banggala
Barngarla
Bungeha
Bungala
Bungela
Kooapidna
Kooapudna
Kortabina
Pangkala
Pankala
Pankalla
Pankarla
Parkalla
Parn kal la
Parnkala
Punkalla
Punkirla
Wanbirujurari
Willara
Willeuroo
Pangkarla
Bahn gala
Pan karla
Comment
Language comment
Clendon (2015), in his recasting of Schürmann's Parnkalla (L6) grammar, notes that Barngarla, Nhawu L2 and Wirangu C1 were mutually intelligible 'at least near their margins', as were Barngarla, Adnyamathanha L10 and Kuyani L9, in the same way (p. 2). He directs the reader to Hercus 1999 for a description of Barngarla dialects. Hercus (1999:12) says that there were at least three dialects: Parnkalla, Pangkarla and Arra-Parnkalla. She identifies data from the Gawler Range by A.D. Sawers and data from Marachowie by H.L. Beddome, both in in Curr (1887:130, 134), as ‘Pangkarla’ or the northern dialect. In her Nukunu L5 dictionary, Hercus describes these dialects as 'Parnkalla from Eastern Eyre Peninsula', 'Warta-Pangkala "Plains Pangkala" from the plains north of Pt August', and 'Nhawu Parnkalla from lower Eyre Peninsula' (Hercus 1992:1). It is not clear whether Nhawu Parnkalla is the same as Arra-Parnkalla. Hercus (1999:14) reports that one of her informants considered Nyawa L2 to be a dialect of Parnkalla, though the quote from Moonie Davis seems to suggest that Arra-Parnkalla and Nhawu Parnkalla are distinct. No further information is available, nor data identified, and most other sources have used these names interchangeably. Given the lack of further information, the uncertain identity of some, the lack of data for most, and the fact that they are undifferentiated in other sources, these dialect names are not treated separately in this database, nor are they included as language headings in the Thesaurus.
References

Beddome, Harry L. 1868. Marachowie. In Curr (ed.), The Australian Race, vol. 2, pp. 132-135.
Clendon, Mark. 2015. Clamor Schürmann's Barngarla grammar: a commentary on the first section of A vocabulary of the Parnkalla language. Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press. (L P230.004/1)
Curr, Edward Micklethwaite. 1886-87. The Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia, and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent. Melbourne: John Ferres, Government Printer; London: Trübner.
Hercus, Luise Anna. 1992. A Nukunu dictionary. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, The Faculties, Australian National University.
Hercus, Luise. 1999. A grammar of the Wirangu language from the West Coast of South Australia: Pacific Linguistics C-150. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Hercus, Luise & Jane Simpson. 2001. The tragedy of Nauo. In Forty years on: Ken Hale and Australian languages, ed. Jane Simpson, et al., 263-290. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Sawers, A.D. 1886. Gawler Range. In Curr (ed.) The Australian Race, vol. 2, pp. 130-132.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
SA
Location information
East side of Lake Torrens south of Edeowie and west of Hookina and Port Augusta; west of Lake Torrens to Island Lagoon and Yardea; at Woorakimba, Hesso, Yudnapinna, Gawler Ranges; south to Kimba, Darke Peak, Cleve, and Franklin Harbour (Tindale 1974). Port Lincoln, to the north beyond Franklin Harbour and the interior (Schurmann 1987:152-3 as quoted in Hercus and Simpson 2001:264).
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Oates 1973 Senate 1984 Schmidt 1990 Census 1996 Census 2001 NILS 2004 2005 estimate Census 2006
- - - - - - 0 -
Speaker NILS table
- - - -
1-19 years 20-39 years 40-59 years 60+
NILS endangerment grade
0
Documentation
Document Score: 
2
Documentation table: 
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual Less than 1 1
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available (vocabulary)
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
Schürmann, C, Simpson, J and O'Grady, J. A vocabulary of the Parnkalla language, ASEDA 0256.
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Luise Hercus, C.W. Schürmann
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Classification
Classification table: 
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Yura Banggarla  
Dixon (2002)   SPENCER GULF BASIN AREAL GROUP Yura subgroup* Parnkalla Parnkalla Schürmann (1844)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West   Banggarla  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Yura Banggarla (Pangkala)  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Southern Western Desert Type Yura Banggala (Pangkala)  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Yura Pangkala (Pankarla, Parnkala, Pankalla, Banggala)  
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Yura Pangkala