N10: Kuwema

AIATSIS code: 
N10
AIATSIS reference name: 
Kuwema

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Kuwema
Horton name
Kuwema, Tjerratj
Ethnologue name
Tyaraity
ISO 639-3 code
woa
Tindale name
Djerait
Thesaurus heading language
Kuwema language N10
Thesaurus heading (old)
Djeradj / Dyeraidy language (N10) (NT SD52-07)
Tindale (1974)
Tjerait, Cherait, Cherite, Sherait, Jeerite, Scherits, Tjiras.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
tyar1236
Other sources
Kuwema, Guwema, Guwe, Nguluk Angguwe, Ponga-ponga, Dek Tjerratj, Dek Tjirratj, Djeradj, Djiratj, Tyeraity, Sherait. Tyeraity, Djeraity, Djerait, Djeradj, Tjerait, Cherites, Sherait, Tjiras, Daktyeraty, Daktyerat, Djeraidj [Top End Handbook] Scherits [Tryon?] Sherait, Paperbark natives [Basedow 1907:2]
Synonyms
Tyaraity, Tjerratj, Dak Tjerratj, Djerait, Tyeraity, Ponga Ponga, Pungupungu, Djeraidj, Dyeraidy, Kuwama, Guwema, Guwe, Nguluk Angguwe, Ponga ponga, Dek Tjerratj, Dek Tjirratj, Djeradj, Djiratj, Sherait, Djeraity, Tjerait, Cherites, Tjiras, Daktyeraty, Daktyerat, Cherait, Cherite, Jeerite, Scherits
Comment
Comments: 
Kuwema (N10) is used as both a language and a people name. Ethnologue lists Tyeraity (N10) and Kuwema as alternative language names. Guwema (N10) is a non-Pama Nyungan language which is closely related to MalakMalak N22 and located in the Daly River region of the Northern Territory. Together they are classified as Northern Daly languages (Harvey, 2003:159). See also Glottolog The neighbouring languages of Kuwema are MalakMalak, Matngele N12 and Kamu N32 (according to sparse information from collaborators). A relationship between MalakMalak and Kuwema is generally accepted (Dorothea Hoffmann, July 2016, p.c.). The language name 'Tyeraity' (N10) (and variations in spelling used by Tryon, Glottolog and others) is actually Dak Jirratj (Hoffmann: Dek Tjerratj), the name of an estate linked to the Guwema language (Mark Harvey, July 2016, p.c.). Hoffmann says that Kuwema people also used the term Dek Kuwema to refer to a place (July 2016, p.c.). Tryon classified two Daly language families as subgroups of a main Mulluk group: the Mulluk subgroup consisting of Mullukmulluk N22 and Tyeraity (N10) and the Daly subgroup: Matngala N12, Kamor N33 and Yunggor N26. However he also says that this Daly subgroup is more closely aligned with a Wogaity subgroup, which he classifies under a main Brinken-Wogaity group. (1974, 289-290). Harvey presents the case there is not sufficient evidence to support a genetic link between the Northern Daly languages, Guwema (N10) and MalakMalak N22, and the Eastern Daly languages Matngele N12 and Kamu N33 (Eastern Daly group) (2003:159, 172-3). Nordlinger and Green use the spelling Tyerraty (N10) and include the names Kuwema, Dek Tyerraty and Nguluk Angguwe . Both Harvey and Hoffmann understand the term Nguluk Angguwe is a phrase constructed with the word nguluk 'language'. Hoffmann compares it with nguluk ngawe in MalakMalak 'my language' (July 2016, p.c.).
References: 
  • Baker, Brett. New Top End Handbook (FileMaker database). (ASEDA 0626).
  • Green, Ian & Nordlinger, Rachel. The Daly Languages web resource http://dalylanguages.org
  • Harvey, Mark. 2003. The evolution of verb systems in the eastern Daly language family. In The Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages of Northern Australia : comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region (ed) Nicholas Evans, Canberra : Pacific Linguistics 552, p. 159-184.
  • Tryon, Darrell, T. 1974. Daly family languages, Australia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, C-32.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
... near Mount Haywood, on the north side of the Daly River (Stanner 1933 as quoted in Tryon 1974). Tipperary Station westwards to Daly River Mission (Top End Handbook).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Ian Green (Guwema), Mark Harvey (Guwema)
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates5
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate5
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLess than 20 pages1
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarA few articles1
Audio-visualLess than 11
Manuscript note: 
Available (Guwema)
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
-
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)DalyMalagmalagMalagmalag ProperTyaraity
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)DalyMalagmalag, Bringen-WagaydyDyeraidy, Kuwama
Walsh (1981)DalyMalagmalag, Bringen-WagaydyMalagmalag, Wagaydy (Wogaidy)Dyeraidy, Kuwama
Oates (1975)DalyMullugMullugmullugDjeraidj
Wurm (1972)DalyMullukMullukmullukDjeraity
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)