N128: Wubuy / Nunggubuyu

AIATSIS code: 
N128
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wubuy / Nunggubuyu

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Name
ABN name
Nunggubuyu language
ABS name
Nunggubuyu
Horton name
Nunggubuyu
Ethnologue name
Nunggubuyu
ISO 639-3 code
nuy
Tindale name
Nunggubuju
Thesaurus heading language
Wubuy / Nunggubuyu language N128
Thesaurus heading (old)
Nunggubuyu language (N128) (NT SD53-11)
Tindale (1974)
Nunggubuyu, Nungubuyu, Nungabuyu, Nungabuya, Nugubuyu (? misprint), Nungguboiyu, Nungguboiju, Nun-guboiyu, Nuggaboju, Ningburia, Nangabuya.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Nunggubuyu, Nungubuju, Nungbuju, Nungabuyu, Nungabuya, Nugubuyu
Glottocode
nung1290
Other sources
Nunggubuyu, Nungubuyu, Nunggabuyu, Nunggubu'ju, Nungubuju, Nungkubuyu [Top End Handbook]
Synonyms
Wubuy, Yingkwira, Nangabuya, Ningburia, Nuggaboju, Nugubuyu, Nungabuju, Nungabuya, Nungabuyu, Nungbuju, Nunggaboju, Nungguboiju, Nungguboiyu, Nunggubuju, Nunguboiyu, Nungubuju, Nungubuyu, Nunggabuyu, Nungkubuyu, Nun guboiyu
Comment
Comments: 
Wubuy is a non-Pama Nyungan language spoken in eastern Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. The vernacular language name is Wubuy, the word Nunggubuyu (N128) is probably an adaptation of English pronunciation of nun- (gentilic prefix) + wubuy, and means 'people (speaking) Wubuy' (Heath, 1982:126 and Warren, 1982:1); 'Wubuymiri bayaman! Say it in Nunggubuyu!' (Heath 1982:236). Wubuy (N128) is called Yingkura (N128) by Enindhilyakwa N151 speakers (Leeding, 1989 in van Egmond, 2012:10). Baker's assessment of the complex non-past inflections in Ngandi N90 and Nunggubuyu (N128), and their closest cognates being found in Maningrida languages, suggests that their relationship with Gunwiynguan remains uncertain (2004:340). Heath (in van Egmond, 2012:3) says that Anindilyakwa N151, Nunggubuyu (N128) and Ngandi N90 share a common ancestor. Van Egmond concurs with Heath, concluding that Enindhilyakwa N151 is genetically related to Wubuy (N128) and Ngandi N90 and is thus a member of the Gunwiynguan family (2012:315).
References: 
  • Baker, Brett. 2004. Stem forms and paradigm reshaping in Gunwiynguan. In Australian languages : classification and the comparative method / edited by Claire Bowern, Harold Koch. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : John Benjamins Pub. pp. 313-340.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2003. An initial reconstruction of Proto Gunwiynguan phonology. In Nicholas Evans (editor) The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of Northern Australia. Pacific Linguistics, Australian National University : Canberra ACT. pp 205-268.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • Heath, Jeffery, 1982. Nunggubuyu dictionary. Canberra : Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • van Egmond, Marie-Elaine, 2012. Enindhilyakwa phonology, morphosyntax and genetic position. MS 4966.
  • Warren, Kathie, 1982. Nunggubuyu nouns. MS 1639.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
From Cape Barrow and Harris Creek south to coast near Edward Island; west toward headwaters of Rose and Walker rivers (Tindale 1974). The general associations were to the drainages flowing into Bennet Bay, and the coast from approximately Minnie Creek up to and including the mouth of the Walker River. Wubuy affiliations included only the mouth of the Walker and did not extend upriver (Harvey ASEDA 802). It is estimated there are 200-500 Nunggubuyu speakers, most of whom live at Numbulwar - a mainland community at the mouth of the Rose River. ... there is a large group of Nunggubuyu speakers living at Angurugu, Groote Eylandt, and a smaller groups at Ngukurr (Roper River) (Warren, 1982:1).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
Numbulwar Community Education Centre is providing a bilingual education (2006). Ngukurr Language Centre has run intermittent Wubuy language programs at the Ngukurr Community Education Centre (2005 - 2007; 2017; 2018).
People: 
Jeffrey Heath, Earl Hughes, Alice Moyle, Alex van der Leeden, Ngukurr Language Centre, Numbulwar Community Education Centre
Indigenous organisations: 

Ngukurr Language Centre https://ngukurrlc.org.au/

Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates400
1984Senate300 - 400
1990Schmidt300 - 400
1996Census363
2001Census39
2004NILS44
2005Estimate44
2006Census109
2011Census239
2016Census276

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Heath, Jeffrey. 1984. Functional grammar of Nunggubuyu. Canberra: AIAS.

Dictionary: 
Heath, Jeffrey. 1982. Nunggubuyu dictionary. Canberra: AIAS.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Gunwingguan Enindhilyagwa Nunggubuyu Nunggubuyu [dialects: Not intelligible with other languages]
Dixon (2002) ARNHEM LAND GROUP Far east Arnhem Land group Nunggubuyu (or Wubuy or Yingkwira) Nunggubuyu (or Wubuy or Yingkwira) Heath (1984)
Wurm (1994) Nunggubuyu Nunggubuyu
Walsh (1981) Nunggubuyan Nunggubuyu
Oates (1975) Nunggubuyan Nunggubuyu
Wurm (1972) Nunggubuyan Nunggubuyu
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Nunggubuyan Nunggubuju