N85: Yugul

AIATSIS code: 
N85
AIATSIS reference name: 
Yugul

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
Arnhem Land and Daly River Region Languages, nec (Jugul)
Horton name
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Ethnologue name
Mara [Yugul]
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Jukul
Thesaurus heading language
Yugul language N85
Thesaurus heading (old)
Yugul language (N85) (NT SD53-10)
Tindale (1974)
Yukul, Jokul, Yikil, Yookil, Yookull, Yookala, Yikul.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Yukul, Njugul [Top End Handbook]
Synonyms
Arnhem Land, Daly River Region Languages, Jugul, Mara, Yukul, Jokul, Yikil, Yookil, Yookull, Yookala, Yikul
Comment
Comments: 
There is no linguistic data available on Yugul, but Harvey (2008) and Baker (c 1996) list it as a separate language. Harvey (2008) reports that on the basis of place names, Yukul appears to be closely related to Marra N112. According to Yugul Mangi Community Government Council (2007 p.c.), Yugul means 'everyone' and does not refer to any particular language. Their website says, "Yugul Mangi is a name which encompasses the peoples belonging to seven indigenous language groups of the lower Roper River/Gulf of Carpentaria region of South East Arnhem Land. The language groups identified are Mara N112, Ngandi N90, Alawa N92, Nunggubuyu N128, Rittarrngu N104, Wandarang N120 and Ngalakan N77." Brett Baker (2010) looks at the evidence for Yukul (N85) and suggests that, based on indirect linguistic evidence and inferences about social organisation from historical records, it was 'an ethnolinguistic identity on a par with 'Ngalakgan' N77, 'Marra' N112 and so on', likely decimated by conflict with pastoralists soon after contact in the late 1800s.
References: 
  • Baker, Brett. c1996. New Top End Handbook (FileMaker database). (AILEC 0626).
  • Baker, Brett. 2010. Who were the 'Yukul'? In Indigenous language and social identity: papers in honour of Michael Walsh, eds B. Baker, I. Mushin, M. Harvey & R. Gardner. Pacific Linguistics 626. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Proto Mirndi: a discontinuous language family in northern Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Status: 
Potential no data
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
Roper River, around Ngukurr (Top End Handbook). Vicinity of Leichhardt Bar (Urapunga) and on the south bank of Roper River at mouth of Hodgson River; north to Mount Favenc (Tindale 1974). The following places were associated with Yukul: Ngukurr, St Vidgeon homestead, Nawaparr Gorge, Namiliwirri Lagoon. The most certain general association of Yukul was to the lower Roper, other than the mouth which was associated with Warndarrang. Given the linguistic connection to Marra, it would appear that there was a common boundary with Marra. Given the known territorial affiliations of Alawa, Marra, and Warndarrang, this common boundary was most plausibly between the middle Towns River the Limmen Bight River. As such, it appears that the middle Towns was associated with Yukul. There was no precise information in 2007 on the affiliations of the drainages originating in the southern side of Downers Range. However, names such as Namiliwirri suggest that some at least of this was associated with Yukul (Harvey ASEDA 802).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census18

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)GunwingguanMaranMaraMara [Yugul]Mara [dialects: Related to Warndarrang and Yugul, which may be extinct.]
Dixon (2002)ARNHEM LAND GROUPMarra/Warndarrang subgroup*YugulMarra (or Marranbala) Heath (1981a) possible further dialect: Yugul
Wurm (1994)MaranMaraYugul
Walsh (1981)MaranMaraGariyimarYugul
Oates (1975)Yugul
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)