N90: Ngandi

AIATSIS code: 
N90
AIATSIS reference name: 
Ngandi

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Name
ABN name
Ngandi language
ABS name
Ngandi
Horton name
Ngandi
Ethnologue name
Ngandi
ISO 639-3 code
nid
Tindale name
Ngandi
Thesaurus heading language
Ngandi language N90
Thesaurus heading (old)
Ngandi language (N90) (NT SD53-06)
Tindale (1974)
N'gundi, Ngalbon, Ngalgbun, Nandi.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
ngan1295
Other sources
Synonyms
Ngundi, Nagandi, Nagandji, Nanda, Nandi, Ngalbon, Ngalgbun
Comment
Comments: 
Ngandi is a non-Pama Nyungan language spoken in eastern Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Ngandi is classified belonging to the Gunwiynguan language family (Harvey, 2003:205). Heath (in van Egmond, 2012:3) says that Anindilyakwa N151, Nunggubuyu N128 and Ngandi (N90) share a common ancestor. Van Egmond concurs with Heath, concluding that Enindhilyakwa N151 is genetically related to Wubuy N128 and Ngandi (N90) and is thus a member of the Gunwiynguan family (2012:315). Baker's assessment of the complex non-past inflections in Ngandi (N90) and Nunggubuyu N128, and their closest cognates being found in Maningrida languages, suggests that their relationship with Gunwiynguan remains uncertain (2004:340).
References: 
  • Baker, Brett. 2004. Stem forms and paradigm reshaping in Gunwiynguan. In Australian languages : classification and the comparative method / edited by Claire Bowern, Harold Koch. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : John Benjamins Pub. pp. 313-340.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
  • Harvey, Mark. 2003. An initial reconstruction of Proto Gunwiynguan phonology. In Nicholas Evans (editor) The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of Northern Australia. Pacific Linguistics, Australian National University : Canberra ACT. pp 205-268.
  • Heath, Jeffrey. 1974. Ngandi grammar, texts and dictionary. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • van Egmond, Marie-Elaine, 2012. Enindhilyakwa phonology, morphosyntax and genetic position. MS 4966.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
... the core Ngandi area was along Rose River and fair distance from the coast and going north from there (Heath 1974:3). Around Rose River and northwards (Top End Handbook). Upper Wilton River; Mainoru River; east to near sources of the Rose River (Tindale 1974). There was no precise information on the limits of Ngandi associations in 2007. The general associations were to the Rose River and Phelps River drainages, other than the coast and 10-20km inland which were associated with Warndarrang. Wonmurri Waterhole was associated with Warndarrang (Harvey ASEDA 802).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
Ngukurr Language Centre has run intermittent Ngandi language programs at the Ngukurr Community Education Centre (2005 - 2007; 2017; 2019).
People: 
Brett Baker
Indigenous organisations: 

Ngukurr Language Centre https://ngukurrlc.org.au/

Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oatesfew
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS9
2005Estimate9
2006Census9
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Heath, Jeffrey. 1974. Ngandi grammar, texts, and dictionary. Canberra: AIAS.

Dictionary: 
Heath, Jeffrey. 1974. Ngandi grammar, texts, and dictionary. Canberra: AIAS.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Gunwingguan Enindhilyagwa Ngandi
Dixon (2002) ARNHEM LAND GROUP Far east Arnhem Land group Ngandi Ngandi Heath (1978b)
Wurm (1994) Gunwinyguan Nganci Ngandi
Walsh (1981) Gunwinyguan Ngandic Ngandi
Oates (1975) Gunwingguan Ngandic Ngandi
Wurm (1972) Gunwingguan Ngandic Ngandi
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Gunwingguan Ngandic Ngandi