N92: Alawa

AIATSIS Code: 
N92
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Alawa

tab group

Name
ABN Name
Alawa language
ABS Name
Alawa
Horton Name
Alawa
Ethnologue name
Alawa
ISO 639-3 code
alh
Tindale name
Alawa
Thesaurus heading
Alawa language (N92) (NT SD53-10)
Tindale (1974)
Alaua, Allawa, Allaua, Allua, Allowa, Alowa, Leealowa, Kallaua, Allowiri, Allaura, Galleewo, ? Woo-looami.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Allawa, Allua, Allowa, Alowa, Leealowa, Kallana, Allowiri, Allaura
Glottocode
alaw1244
Other sources
Alawa, Allawa,Galawa, Warliburru [Top End Handbook] Alowa (Power), Alowa (Spencer and Gillen 1904) [Basedow 1907]
Synonyms
Galawa
Warliburru
Wilingura
Ngewin
Alawa; Alaua
Allaua
Allaura
Allawa
Allowa
Allowiri
Allua
Alowa
Galleewo
Kallaua
Leealowa
Woolooami
Kallana
Walkonda
Walooka
Alaua
Galleewa
Woo looami
Comment
Language comment
Alawa, also known as Galawa or Wal̩ibur̆u, is a non-Pama Nyungan language (Sharpe, 1972). Several sources describe it as belonging to a subgroup with Marra N112 and Warndarrang N120 (Sharpe 1972; Heath 1978 in Sharpe 2008:59). Merlan (1989, 2003) argues for the addition of Mangarrayi N78 to this subgroup, known as Maran and Marra-Alawic. Baker (2006) questions the validity of the subgroup, due to the apparently unrelated finite verb forms. Sharpe examines the evidence in favour of their relatedness, and suggests, 'While Baker may be right in saying these languages are not from one linguistic family, the most plausible hypothesis at the present time is that they are related at a considerable time depth, even if a number of their features may have other sources' (2008:61).
References

Baker, Brett. New Top End Handbook (FileMaker database). (ASEDA 0626).
Basedow, Herbert. 1907. Anthropological notes on the western coastal tribes of the Northern Territory of South Australia. Royal Society of South Australia -- Transactions 31:1-62.
Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. AILEC 0802.
Merlan, Francesca. 2003. The genetic position of Mangarrayi: evidence from nominal prefixation. In The Non-Pama Nyungan languages of Northern Australia, ed Nicholas Evans, 353-367. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Sharpe, Margaret. 1972. Alawa phonology and grammar: Australian Aboriginal Studies 37, Linguistic Series 15. Canberra: AIAS.
Sharpe, Margaret. 2008. Alawa and its neighbours: enigma variations 1 and 2. In Morphology and language history, eds Claire Bowern, Bethwyn Evans and Luisa Miceli, 59-69. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
NT
Location information
Hodgson Downs, Nutwood Downs, Tanumbirini stations, south of the Roper River and the east of the Stuart Highway (Sharpe 1972/Top End Handbook). west of the Binbinga, in the Limmen River district (Basedow 1907:3). Southern tributaries of Roper River upstream from the mouth of the Hodgson River west to Roper valley; south to Mason Bluff (Mount Mueller) and Hodgson Downs; east to the headwaters of Mountain Creek where in the year 1922 they had a refuge cave with buried stores of water lily seeds, examined by this author (Tindale 1974). The general territorial associations were to the Hodgson River drainage, the upper Towns River drainage, and the Cox River drainage. The Cox River was associated with Alawa until the point where it turns to flow east-west close to the junction with the Limmen Bight River. The east-west running reach of the Cox was associated with Marra. The headwaters fo the Arnold River appear to have been associated with Ngarnka. The following places were associated with Alawa: Cox River homestead, Nutwood Downs homestead, Hodgson River homestead, Minyerri, Old St Vidgeon homestead (on Mountain Creek). There was no precise information in 2007 as to whether Old Tanumbirini homestead was associated with Alawa or Ngarnka (Harvey ASEDA 802).
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
0126
NILS endangerment grade
1
Documentation
Document Score: 
14
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLarge (more than 200 pages)4
Text CollectionLarge (more than 200 pages)4
GrammarSmall grammar (100-200 pages)3
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
Sharpe, Margaret. 1972. Alawa phonology and grammar. Canberra: AIAS.
Dictionary: 
Sharpe, Margaret. 2001. Alawa Nanggaya Nindanya Yalanu rugalarra = Alawa-Kriol-English dictionary. Prospect, SA: Caitlin Press.
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Margaret Sharpe, Ngkurr Language Centre
Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)GunwingguanMaranAlawicAlawa
Dixon (2002)ARNHEM LAND GROUPAlawa (= Galawa, Warliburru)Alawa (= Galawa, Warliburru) Sharpe (1972)
Wurm (1994)MaranMaraAlawa
Walsh (1981)MaranAlawicAlawa
Oates (1975)MaranAlawicAlawa
Wurm (1972)MaranAlawicAlawa
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)MaranAlawicAlawa