P1: Kriol

AIATSIS code: 
P1
AIATSIS reference name: 
Kriol

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Kriol
Horton name
-
Ethnologue name
Kriol
ISO 639-3 code
rop
Tindale name
-
Thesaurus heading language
Kriol language P1
Thesaurus heading (old)
-
Tindale (1974)
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O'Grady et al (1966)
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Glottocode
krio1252
Other sources
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Synonyms
Creole
Comment
Comments: 
A creole is a language with a particular history. Creoles emerge from contact languages, also known as pidgins. These are creative responses by people without a common language and are used in restricted domain, such as trade. They are often the result of colonial impositions on Indigenous populations. Pidgins become creolised when a generation of people use and expand the contact language and it develops into a full language, capable of meeting all communicative demands in all social contexts. There are differing views regarding the emergence of Kriol (see Harris 1993:147-9; Munro and Koch in Ponsonnet, 2010:165) in the Northern Territory including the influence of local sub-strate languages and of New South Wales and Queensland pidgins. The 2011 census for Kriol speakers is 4,000, but linguists estimate the real number is closer to 20,000. Kriol is used in churches, education and other social spheres such as the Kriol edition of ABC Radio News. However, many Aboriginal people view Kriol as being responsible for the loss of traditional languages; others argue that colonisation and inequality account for the loss of these languages and the emergence of Kriol (Dixon, nd: ). Well known varieties of Kriol include Roper River Kriol and Barunga Kriol, both are included under the code (P4) in the database. Creole spoken in Torres Strait, Torres Strait Creole P2 is listed separately in this database. See also Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin P3.
References: 
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
QLD
WA
Location information: 

QLD, WA, NT Stretches across northern Australia, and is especially spoken in the communities of south-western Arnhem land (Ponsonnet 2010:371).

Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Kriol

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:

Creole, Kriol, (see Sandefur 1979:7)

Major dialects centres: Roper River (Ngukurr), Bamyili, Fitzroy Crossing, Halls Creek

Classification of the language:

Creole from English and Australian languages of northern Australia. Distinguished from Cape York Creole, and from Aboriginal English.

Identification codes: has not been included in previous surveys.

AIAS: subject catalogue 48/3E1

Present number and distribution of speakers:

From western Queensland to the Kimberleys, across northern Australia. At least 15,000 speakers.

People who have worked intensively on the language:

John and Joy Sandefur, Ngukurr (Roper River).

Practical orthography:

Standard orthography since 1976 at Bamyili and Ngukurr.

See Sandefur, 1981:118.

Word lists:

Sandefur & Sandefur, 1979; Steffensen, 1977; Sharpe, 1976.

Grammar or sketch grammar:

Sharpe 1974,1975; Sharpe & Sandefur, 1976,1977; Sandefur, 1979.

Material available on the language:

See also Sandefur, 1981b:120-121 "Appendix 1 Selected bibliography of works on Kriol".

Clark, Ross. 1979-80. In search of Beach-la-mar: towards a history of Pacific Pidgin English. Te Reo 22&23:3-64.

Davidson, Graham R. 1977. A preliminary report on traditional culture learning and Aboriginal pidgin as part of the school's bilingual program at Bamyili, N.T. ms. AIAS.

Fraser, Jill. 1977. A tentative short dictionary of Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin. From data collected Oct-Nov 1974; revised March 1977. ms. SIL-AAB.

---------- 1977. A phonological analysis of Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin, in Five Papers in Australian Phonologies, ed. by Joyce Hudson. Work papers SIL-AAB A.1:145-204.

Hall, R.A. 1943. Notes on Australian Pidgin English. Language 19:263-267.

Hudson, Joyce. 1977. Some common features in Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin and Walmatjari. 17p. ms. (written for course at LSA Linguistics Institute, University of Hawaii, August)

Jernudd, Bjorn H. 1969. Social change and Aboriginal speech variation in Australia. Anthropological Linguistics 13.1:16-31. (also published in Working Papers in Linguistics, University of Hawaii, Issue No. 4, May 1969)

MacKnight, Charles C. 1976. The voyage to Marege'. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. (Macassan contact, incl. linguistic influence; probably only brief reference)

Meehan, Dorothy. 1980. Kriol literacy: why and how... Notes on Kriol and the Bamyili school bilingual education program. Bamyili, N.T.: Bamyili Press.

Murtagh, Edward J. 1979. Creole and English Used as Languages of Instruction with Aboriginal Australians. Ed.D. dissertation, Stanford University. ts. Darwin: Department of Education.

Reinecke, John E. 1975. A bibliography of Pidgin and Creole languages. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, 14. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii. 804p. (touches on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait creoles and pidgins)

Richards, Eirlys & Jill Fraser. 1975. A comparison and contrasting of the noun phrases of Walmatjari with the noun phrases of Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin. Paper presented to

the 7th congress of the Linguistic Society of Australia, Sydney, August. ms. handout.

Rumsey, Alan Lee. 1978. A Grammar of Ungarinjin with special reference to the structure of discourse. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago. xeroxed ts. AIAS. (briefly compares

Ungarinjin and Kriol)

---------- 1981. On some syntactico-semantic consequences of homophony in northwest Australian Pidgin/Creole English. ms. Sandefur, John R.

---------- 1979. An Australian Creole in the Northern Territory: A description of Ngukurr-Bamyili dialects (part 1). Work Papers of SIL-AAB B.3. February. 185p. [The above work incorporates chapters for which the following items were drafts. The following mss. are listed for identification purposes; reference should be made to Sandefur, 1979 as given above.

---------- On the development of the description of Roper Creole clauses. SIL.

---------- 1973. Roper River lingua franca. SIL. (p 10882, AIAS)

---------- 1974. Roper Creole phonology. SIL. (pMs 2769, AIAS)

---------- 1976. Kriol orthography. (preliminary draft). SIL. (pMs 2767, AIAS)

---------- 1976. Roper Creole verbs. SIL. (pMs 2768, AIAS) ]

---------- 1979. Distribution of Kriol speakers. Ngukurr - Roper River, N.T. 2p. ts. (author does not recall this item)

---------- 1980. Discovery of a Cinderella. ms. SIL-AAB.

---------- 1980. Kriol -- language with a history. ms. (to appear in Northern Perspective)

---------- 1980. Kriol and the question of decreolization. ms. (to appear in Australian Aborigines: Some Sociolinguistic Case Studies, ed. by Graham R. MacKay. IJSL.)

---------- 1980. When will Kriol die out? ms. SIL-AAB. (to appear in Occasional Papers of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia)

---------- 1981a. Kriol -- an Aboriginal language. Hemisphere 25.4(January/February):252-6.

---------- 1981b. Developing a literature for Kriol, in Literacy in an Aboriginal Context, ed. by S. Hargrave. Work Papers of SIL-AAB B.6(April):115-133.

---------- 1981c. A New Aboriginal language?. The Aboriginal Child at School 9.1:52-60.

---------- 1981c. Emergence of a new Aboriginal language -- Kriol. ms. (to appear in Anthropological Forum)

---------- with Michael Gumbuli, Dan Daniels and Mal Wurramara. 1980. Looking for Kriol in Queensland. ms. SIL-AAB.

---------- & Joy Sandefur (comps.) 1979. Beginnings of a Ngukurr-Bamyili Creole dictionary. Work Papers of SIL-AAB B.4. February. 136p.

---------- & ---------- 1981. Pidgin and creole in the Kimberleys, Western Australia. AIAS Newsletter 14:31-37.

Sharpe, Margaret. 1974. Report on Roper Pidgin and the possibility of its use in a bilingual program, in Report on the Third Meeting of the Bilingual Education Consultative Committee

held in Darwin on 27-29 November 1974. Darwin: Department of Education.

---------- 1974. Notes on the 'Pidgin English' creole of Roper River. AIAS Newsletter n.s.2(June):2-11. tbls. (republished as Sharpe, 1975)

---------- 1975. Notes on the 'Pidgin English' creole of Roper River. Linguistic Communications 13:38-60. bibl. tbls. (reprinted from Sharpe, 1974)

---------- 1976. Roper Creole dictionary with English and Alawa. 43p. mimeo. ts. (May)

---------- & John Sandefur. 1976. The Creole language of the Katherine and Roper River areas, Northern Territory, in Australia Talks; essays on the sociology of Australian immigrant and Aboriginal languages. Pacific Linguistics D.23:63-77.

---------- & ---------- 1977. A brief description of Roper

creole, p.51-60 in Language Problems and Aboriginal Education, ed. by Ed Brumby and Eric Vaszolyi. Mt. Lawley College of Advanced Education. Steffensen, Margaret. 1975. Bamyili creole. 7p. ts. Madison, Wisconsin. (Doc. no.75/1849) AIAS.

---------- 1977. A description of Bamyili Creole. Urbana, Illinois. 32p. (pMs 179, AIAS)

---------- 1977. Double talk: when it means something and when it doesn't. Papers from the 13th Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, pp.603-611.

---------- 1979. Reduplication in Bamyili Creole, in Papers in Pidgin and Creole Linguistics No. 2. Pacific Linguistics A.57:119-133..

Thompson, Holt. 1976. Creole as the vernacular language in a bilingual program at Bamyili school in the Northern Territory. Thesis for Advanced Diploma, Torrens College of Advanced

Education, Adelaide.

Wurm, S.A. 1971. Pidgins, creoles, and lingue franche, p.999-1021 in Current Trends in Linguistics, 8.2, ed. by T.A. Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton. (briefly mentions Kriol as "pidgin")

Literacy material:

A great amount has been and is being produced at Bamyili and Ngukurr, or by students from there at SAL.

See Sandefur, 1981b:122-133 "Appendix 2 Complete bibliography of Kriol vernacular publications listed by year of publication" for an extensive list.

The following are listed by Sandefur, and are listed as examples:

Bamyili Kriol primers. (too numerous to list here) (p7371, p7734-35, p7842-43, p7900-04, p8142-58, are just some held at AIAS.)

Perinpanayagam, Gnani (comp. and ed.) 1979. Stories for bilingual situations. SAL. (stories in 3 booklets according to reading level, each booklet available in 4 different forms: stories-questions in Kriol-Kriol, Kriol-English, English-Kriol or English-English)

Level One, 7 stories by 4 authors. 11p.

Level Two, 8 stories by 5 authors. 16p.

Level Three, 10 stories by 6 authors. 28p.

Additional to Sandefur's list:

Tukumba, Ross. 1980. Ola Dibrin Kain Tri. [Different kinds of trees]. Bamyili Press. 49p.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

9.3 Kriol / Creole

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:

Creole, Kriol (Sandefur, Hudson, Black & Walsh), 'Pidgin English' creole (Sharpe)

Most young Aborigines of northern Australia speak some form of the post-contact language which is a creolised form of Pidgin English (see section 9.2). There are at least three major dialects:

Kimberley dialect, centred in the Fitzroy Crossing, Kununurra, and Halls Creek areas;

Northern Territory dialect, centred around Roper River (Ngukurr), and Bamyili; and

Cape York dialect, spoken by Aborigines in the northern and north-eastern parts of Cape York Peninsula, and in the Torres Straits Islands.

The Kimberley and Northern Territory dialects have recently come to be referred to as Kriol, which is the spelling of the term Creole in the accepted orthography for the language. Other names for these dialects include:

Fitzroy Valley Kriol (Hudson), Roper River creole English (Sandefur) ,Roper River 'pidgin English' creole (Sandefur)

Roper creole (Sandefur).

This designation, however, does not seem to be generally used for the third dialect, which is referred to by the following:

Cape York Creole (Crowley & Rigsby), Torres Strait Creole (Shnukal).

These dialects show a number of differences from one another, both in their grammars, and in their words. It seems that many Kimberley Aborigines regard their variety of Kriol as very different from, if not mutually unintelligible with the Northern Territory dialect, and reject suggestions that they are the same language.

There are also certain differences in the Kimberley dialect from centre to centre, which many speakers are well aware of.

Classification of the language:

An English based creole of northern Australia; distinguished from Aboriginal English.

Identification codes:

AIAS: subject catalogue 48/3E1

Oates 1973: (not included)

Capell: (not included)

Present number and distribution of speakers:

From northern Queensland to the Kimberleys, right across northern Australia.

At least 15,000 speakers.

People who have worked intensively on the language:

Terry Crowley, mid to late 1970s, Bamaga (Queensland)

Shirley Gollagher, since late 1970s, Fitzroy Crossing

Joyce Hudson, since 1980, Fitzroy Crossing

Bruce Rigsby, mid to late 1970s, Bamaga (Queensland)

John and Joy Sandefur, since early 1970s, Ngukurr (Roper River)

Anna Shnukal, since early 1980s, Torres Strait Islands

Practical orthography:

A standard orthography has been in use since 1976 at Bamyili and Ngukurr (Sandefur 1981b:118). For a detailed description of this system, see Sandefur (1984a). The same system was recommended in 1983 for writing Kimberley Kriol in the Yiyili Community School (see Hudson 1984).

Word lists:

Fraser (1977a), Hudson (1981b), Sandefur & Sandefur (1979b), Sandefur (1984a), Steffensen (1977a), Sharpe (1976a)

Textual material:

Hudson (1983a)

Grammar or sketch grammar:

Crowley & Rigsby (1979), Hudson (1981a, 1983a), Sharpe (1974b, 1975), Sharpe & Sandefur (1976, 1977), Sandefur (1979)

Material available on the language:

See also:

Sandefur (1981b:120-121) "Appendix 1: Selected bibliography of works on Kriol", Sandefur (1984a:112-118), and Sandefur (1985).

Ainsworth, M.K. 1985. Kriol Bible released after 12 years work. Mission Review 31. 13.

Australia. Department of Education. 1982. Towards a national language policy. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Australia. Task Force on Aboriginal and Islander Broadcasting and Communications. 1984. Report. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies and Australian Council for the Arts. 1983. Aboriginal Arts Boards. Joint submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts Language policy for Australia. Canberra.

Baarda, W. 1980. "It's a slow consumption killing you by degrees". 8pp. typescript. AIAS p10421.

Bamyili Housing Association Incorporated. 1975. The Bamyili book: an information book about Bamyili; family services. 22pp. typescript. AIAS p8173.

Bani, E. 1976. The language situation in western Torres Strait. In Sutton, P.J. (ed.), Languages of Cape York. Canberra: AIAS. 3-6.

_____ .1982. The Torres Strait Creole (T.S.C.). Torres News x(11). 1.

Bavin, E. & Shopen, T. 1983. An initial report on children's Warlpiri at Yuendumu (NT). 39pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3721.

Bell, J. (ed.). 1982. Language planning for Australian Aboriginal languages. Alice Springs: IAD.

Black, P.D. 1982. Why and how languages change. In Bell, J. (ed.). 14-21.

Breen, J.G. 1982. Why are there so many Australian languages? In Bell, J. (ed.). 7-13.

Brennan, G. 1979. The need for interpreting and translation services for Australian Aboriginals, with special reference to the Northern Territory - a research report. Canberra: Department of Aboriginal Affairs.

Brumby, E. 1976. But they don't use it in the playground: "How often do we use standard English?" Aboriginal Child at School 4. 33-37.

Brumby, E. & Vaszolyi, E.G. (eds). 1977. Language problems and Aboriginal education. Perth: Mount Lawley College of Advanced Education.

Capell, A. 1979. Languages and creoles in Australia. Sociologia Internationalis 17. 141-161.

Chesson, K. 1978. The problem of non-Standard English. Aboriginal and Islander Identity 3. 38-39.

Clyne, M. (ed.). 1976. Australia talks: essays on the sociology of Australian immigrant and Aboriginal languages. Canberra: PL, D-23.

Cromell, L.G. 1980-82. Bar Kar Mir. To talk with no curves: important speaking among mainland Torres Strait Islanders. Anthropological Forum 5. 24-37.

Crowley, T. 1975. [Cape York tape transcriptions.] 228pp. typescript. AIAS Ms 1002. (A1;B3)

_____ .1976. Langgus bla Kepiok - Cape York Creole. 48pp. mimeo. AIAS pMs 393. (A1;B1)

Crowley, T. & Rigsby, B. 1979. Cape York Creole. In Shopen, T. (ed.), Languages and their status. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and Winthrop. 153-207.

Davidson, G.R. 1975. Culture learning through caretaker-child interchange behaviour in an Australian Aboriginal community. PhD thesis, University of Sydney. AIAS Ms 961. (A1;B2)

_____ .1977. A preliminary report on traditional culture learning and Aboriginal pidgin as part of the school's bilingual programme at Bamyili, N.T. Armidale: University of New England, Centre for Behavioural Studies. typescript. AIAS pMs 3312.

Douglas, W.H. 1968. The Aboriginal languages of south-west Australia: speech forms in current use and a technical description of Njungar. Canberra: AIAS.

_____ .1976. The Aboriginal languages of the south-west of Australia. (second edition) Canberra: AIAS.

Dutton, T.E. 1964. Some phonological aspects of Palm Island Aboriginal English: a study of the free conversational speech of four Aboriginal children on Palm Island Aboriginal Settlement in north Queensland. MA (Qualifying) thesis, University of Queensland. AIAS Ms 1109. (A1;B2)

_____ .1965. The informal speech of Palm Island Aboriginal children, north Queensland: a study of the structure of the conversational English of Aboriginal children aged from nine to fourteen years on Palm Island and a comparison of this with similar informants elsewhere. MA thesis, University of Queensland. AIAS MF 73. (A1;B4)

_____ .1969. The informal English of Palm Island Aboriginal children, north Queensland. Journal of English Linguistics 3. 18-36.

_____ .1970. Informal English in the Torres Straits. In Ramson, W.S. (ed.), English transported. Canberra: ANU Press. 137-160.

_____ .1980. Queensland canefields English of the late nineteenth century (a record of interview with two of the last surviving Kanakas in North Queensland, 1964). Canberra: PL, D-29.

_____ .1983. The origin and spread of Aboriginal Pidgin English in Queensland: a preliminary account. Aboriginal History 7. 90-122.

Dwyer, L.J. 1974. The language of the Aboriginal child. 11pp. manuscript. AIAS pMs 2837. (A1;B5)

_____ .1976. A language program for Aboriginal children. Paper presented at the National Conference Workshop on the Language Performance of Exceptional Children, Fred and Eleanor Schonell Educational Research Centre, University of Queensland. May 1975. (Published in Exceptional Child. )

_____ .1981. Cultural difference, not cultural deficit. LINKS 2. 4-8.

_____ .1984. A language program for Aboriginal children. Wikaru 12. 27-49.

Eades, D. 1980. Questioning and questions in south east Queensland Aboriginal society. 31pp. preliminary draft. typescript. AIAS pMs 3481.

_____ .1981. 'That's our way of talking': Aborigines in south-east Queensland. Social Alternatives. 2/2. 11-14.

_____ .1982a. English as an Aboriginal language. In Bell, J. (compiler & ed.), Aboriginal languages and the question of a national language policy: a collection of papers presented at the second meeting of the A.L.A. held at Batchelor, NT April 1982. Aboriginal Languages Association. 14-17.

_____ .1982b. You gotta know how to talk ...: information seeking in south-east Queensland Aboriginal society. Australian Journal of Linguistics 2. 61-82.

_____ .1983. English as an Aboriginal language in southeast Queensland. PhD thesis, University of Queensland. AIAS Ms 1903.

Eagleson, R.D. 1977. English and the urban Aboriginal. Meanjin 36. 535-544.

_____ .1978. Urban Aboriginal English. Australian University Modern Language Association 49. 52-64.

_____ .1982a. Variation in English language. In Eagleson, R.D., Kaldor, S. & Malcolm, I.G. (eds). 11-30.

_____ .1982b. Aboriginal English in an urban setting. In Eagleson, R.D., Kaldor, S. & Malcolm, I.G. (eds). 113-162.

Eagleson, R.D., Kaldor, S. & Malcolm, I.G. (eds). 1982. English and the Aboriginal child. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre.

Eckert, A. 1982. Analysis of written style: an imperative for readable translations. In McKay, G.R. & Sommer, B.A. (eds). 18-25.

Edwards, B. 1984. Aboriginal land rights: the interpreter's role. Journal of the Anthropology Society of South Australia 22. 11-21.

Elwell, V.M.R. 1977. Multilingualism and lingua francas among Australian Aborigines: a case study of Maningrida. BA (Hons) thesis, ANU. AIAS Ms 1058. (A1;B2)

_____ .1979. English-as-a-second-language in Aboriginal Australia: a case study of Milingimbi. MA thesis, ANU. Ms 1433. (A1;B2)

_____ .1982. Language planning and Aboriginal interpreters. In Bell, J. (ed.). 83-92.

Fesl, E.D. 1977. Melbourne Aboriginal English: an investigation into the differences in speech between Aboriginal persons living in Melbourne and Australians of European descent. BA (Hons) thesis, Monash University. AIAS Ms 1065. (A1;B2)

_____ .1982. Language needs of Aboriginal groups. In Bell, J. (compiler & ed.), Aboriginal languages and the question of a national language policy: a collection of papers presented at the second meeting of the A.L.A. held at Batchelor, NT April 1982. Aboriginal Languages Association.

Ford, K.C. 1981. Linguistics and the language teacher: some features of the L2 English of educated Aborigines. Paper presented to Sixth Applied Linguistics Association of Australia Congress, Canberra. typescript. 45-52.

Fraser, J. 1974. A tentative preliminary analysis of the grammar of Fitzroy Crossing children's Pidgin English. manuscript.

_____ .1977a. A tentative short dictionary of Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin. From data collected Oct-Nov 1974. Revised March 1977. manuscript.

_____ .1977b. A phonological analysis of Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin. In Hudson, J. (ed.), Five Papers in Australian Phonologies. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, A-1) Darwin: SIL. 145-204.

Geiselhart, K. 1979. A preliminary study of some vocal stereotypes in Sydney, Australia. MA thesis, Macquarie University. AIAS Ms 1657.

Geytenbeek B.B. 1977. Looking at English through Nyangumarda-coloured spectacles. In Brumby, E. & Vaszolyi, E.G. (eds). 34-44.

Glass, A.D. 1984. Recent changes in Ngaanyatjarra grammar. In Australian Linguistic Society Conference, Alice Springs, 1984, Pre-circulation papers. typescript. 124-132. AIAS Ms 2008.

Graham R. 1977. A preliminary report on traditional culture learning and Aboriginal pidgin as part of the school's bilingual program at Bamyili, N.T. manuscript.

Gray, B. 1980a. Developing language and literacy with urban Aboriginal children: a first report on the Traeger Park Project presented at Conference 80/2, Northern Territory, Department of Education, at Traeger Park School 4-5 March 1980. Alice Springs: NT Department of Education.

_____ .1980b. Interim report: Traeger Park Language Development Project, October 1980: foreword by G. Cooper. Mt. Gravatt: Mt Gravatt College of Advanced Education Language Development Unit. iv+69pp. typescript.

Gunn, J. 1975. The little black princess. Transcriptions into Roper Creole orthography, by M.C. Sharpe. 9pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 1646. (A1;B3)

Hall, R.A. 1943. Notes on Australian Pidgin English. Language 19. 263-267.

Hargrave, S. 1982. A report on colour term research in five Aboriginal languages. In Hargrave, S. (ed.), Language and culture. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-8) Darwin: SIL. 201-226.

Harkins, J. 1984. How many Aboriginal Englishes? In Australian Linguistic Society Conference, Alice Springs, 1984. Pre-circulation papers. typescript. 1-4. AIAS Ms 2008.

Harris, J.W. 1978. Speaking English - understanding the Aboriginal learner's problems. Aboriginal Child at School 6. 25-33.

_____ .1984. Language contact, pidgins and the emergence of Kriol in the Northern Territory: theoretical and historical perspectives. PhD thesis, University of Queensland.

Harris, J.W. & Sandefur, J. 1983. Creole languages and the use of Kriol in Northern Territory schools. Unicorn 9. 249-264.

_____ .1984. The Creole language debate and the use of creoles in Australian schools. Aboriginal Child at School 12. 8-29.

Heath, J. 1981. A case of intensive lexical diffusion: Arnhem Land, Australia. Language 57. 335-367.

Hobson, J.R. 1980. Aboriginal Australian English: a preliminary phonetic investigation into the identifiability of an Aboriginal variety of the Australian English dialect. B.A.(Hons) thesis, Macquarie University. AIAS Ms 24.

Hudson, J. (ed.). 1977a. Five papers in Australian phonologies. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, A-1) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1977b. Some common features in Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin and Walmatjari. 17pp. manuscript.

_____ .1981a. Grammatical and semantic aspects of Fitzroy Valley Kriol. MA thesis, ANU. AIAS MFE/B46.

_____ .1981b. Fitzroy Valley Kriol word list. manuscript.

_____ .1983a. Grammatical and semantic aspects of Fitzroy Valley Kriol. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, A-8) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1983b. Transitivity and aspect in the Kriol verb. In Carrington, L. et al., Papers in pidgin and creole linguistics No.3. Canberra: PL, A-65. 161-175.

_____ .1984. Why English should be taught as a second language in Aboriginal schools in the Kimberleys. Wikaru 12. 99-106.

Jernudd, B.H. 1971. Social change and Aboriginal speech variation in Australia. Anthropological Linguistics 13. 16-31. (Also published in Working Papers in Linguistics, 4, May 1969, University of Hawaii.)

John, G. 1976. Australians with a different language or dialect. Reporting Research 6. 5-7.

_____ .1977. English needs for Aborigines and Islanders. In First Queensland Multicultural Conference, Languages and cultures in the Australian community: proceedings. Brisbane: Organizing Committee, First Queensland Multicultural Conference. 94-95.

Kaldor, S. 1980. Standard and 'non-standard' English in the school. In Christie, F. & Rothery, J. (eds), Varieties of language and language teaching. Melbourne: Applied Linguistics Association of Australia. 11-25.

Kaldor, S. & Malcolm, I.G. 1979. The language of the school and the language of the Western Australian Aboriginal schoolchild - implications for education. In Berndt, R.M. & Berndt, C.H. (eds), Aborigines of the West: their past and their present. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press. 406-437.

_____ .1982. Aboriginal English in country and remote areas: a Western Australian perspective. In Eagleson, R.D., Kaldor, S. & Malcolm, I.G. (eds). 75-112.

Kaplan, R.B. 1978. The problem of white education: Aboriginal children in school. 35pp. processed. AIAS pMs 3357.

Koch, H.J. 1985. Non-standard English in an Aboriginal land claim. In Pride, J.B. (ed.), Cross cultural encounters: communication and mis-communication. Melbourne: River Seine. 176-195.

Law Reform Commission, Australia. 1980. Aboriginal customary law: summary of proposals. Sydney: Government Press.

Leeding, V.J. 1976. Contrastive semantic units in the teaching of concepts in a bilingual education program. 18pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3746.

_____ .1977. Developing a syllabus for a community school. Umbakumba, Groote Eylandt, NT. Paper presented at ANZAAS Congress. 12pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3745.

_____ .1980. Language engineering: an old skill put to a new use. 21pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3744.

_____ .1981. Loan words: ours or theirs? Paper given to 6th. Applied Linguistics Association of Australia Congress, Canberra. typescript. 68-76. AIAS Ms 1812.

Leeding, V.J. & Laughren, M. 1979. Report on research of the children's speech at Hooker Creek (Lajamanu), May 1979. Yirrkala: Yirrkala Literature Production Centre. i+15pp. AIAS p10283.

Lemaire, J.E. 1971. The application of some aspects of European law to Aboriginal natives of Central Australia. LL.M. thesis, University of Sydney. AIAS Ms 1110. (A1;B2)

Loorham, C. 1982. Kumajay's case. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 3. 3-4.

Malcolm, I.G. 1976. Talk (on Aboriginal English). (Given to Department of Aboriginal Affairs, Canberra) 2pp. mimeo. AIAS pMs 2870. (A1;B5)

_____ .1979a. Classroom communication and the Aboriginal child: a sociolinguistic investigation in Western Australian primary schools. PhD. thesis, University of Western Australia. AIAS Ms 1462. (A1;B1)

_____ .1979b. The West Australian Aboriginal child and classroom interaction. Journal of Pragmatics 3. 305-320.

_____ .1980-1982. Speech use in Aboriginal communities: a preliminary survey. Anthropological Forum 5. 54-104.

_____ .1982/83. Verbal interaction in the classroom. In Eagleson, R.D., Kaldor, S. & Malcolm, I.G. (eds). 165-192.

McConvell, P. 1983. Domains and domination. Aboriginal Language Association Newsletter 5. 8-14.

_____ .1984. Domains and domination. NT bilingual education newsletter. 1 and 2. 48-52.

McKay, G.R. 1978. Bilingual education in Australia's Northern Territory. Paper presented at Boston University, School of Education. 21pp. processed. AIAS pMs 3518.

McKay, G.R. & Sommer, B.A. (eds). 1982. Applications of linguistics to Australian Aboriginal contexts. Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Occasional Papers , 5.

Meehan, D. 1981. Kriol literacy: why and how...: notes on Kriol and Bamyili School bilingual program. Katherine: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1983. Kriol comprehension amongst first-year Kormilda College students: a pilot study. manuscript.

Menning, K., (compiler) & Nash, D. (ed.) 1981. Sourcebook for central Australian languages. Alice Springs: IAD.

Muecke, S. 1978. Narrative discourse units in Aboriginal English: preliminary version. 8pp. mimeo. AIAS pMs 2813. (A1;B3)

_____ .1981a. Aboriginal English and Aboriginal law. 14pp. processed. AIAS pMs 3444.

_____ .1981b. Discourse, history, fiction: language and Aboriginal history. 16pp. processed. AIAS pMs 3427.

_____ .1981c. Discursive alternation in oral narrative. 14pp. processed. AIAS pMs 3428.

_____ .1982a. Ideology reiterated: the use of Aboriginal oral narrative. 25pp. processed. AIAS pMs 3590.

_____ .1982b. The structure of Australian Aboriginal narratives in English: a study in discourse analysis. PhD thesis, University of Western Australia. AIAS Ms 1674.

_____ .1983a. Ideology reiterated: the uses of Aboriginal narrative. Southerly Review 16. 86-101.

_____ .1983b. Discourse, history, fiction: language and Aboriginal history. Australian Journal of Cultural Studies 1. 71-79.

Muhlhausler, P. 1979a. Remarks on the pidgin and creole situation in Australia. draft. 24pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 2999. (A1;B5)

_____ .1979b. Remarks on the pidgin and creole situation. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Newsletter 12. 41-53.

_____ .1986. Pidgins and creoles of Australia and the Pacific: current research for an atlas of languages of intercultural communication. Australian Journal of Linguistics 6. 181-199.

_____ .forthcoming. Overview of pidgin and creole languages in Australia. To appear in Rigsby, B. & Romaine, S. (eds), Languages in Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Murray, E.E. 1979. Aborigines, Islanders and reading: some reasons for failure, some strategies for success. In Page, G., Elkins, J. & O'Connor, B. (eds), Communication through reading 2. Adelaide: Australian Reading Association. 95-101.

Murtagh, E.J. 1979. Creole and English used as languages of instruction with Aboriginal Australians. EdD. dissertation, Stanford University. (Published under the same title by Darwin: NT Department of Education.

_____ .1980. Creole and English used as languages of instruction with Aboriginal Australians. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International.

_____ .1982. Creole and English used as languages of instruction in bilingual education with Aboriginal Australians: some research findings. International Journal for Sociology of Language 36. 15-33.

Nash, D.G. 1979. Foreigners in their own land: Aborigines in court. Legal Services Bulletin 4. 105-7.

Neate, G.J. 1975a. Bilingual education for Australian Aboriginal students. 15pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 2832. (A1;B2)

_____ .1975b. Difficulties encountered in teaching Australian Aborigines in school systems, and attempts to overcome these difficulties. 25pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 2833. (A1;B2)

Ngabidj, G. 1981. My country of the pelican dreaming: the life of an Australian Aborigine of the Gadjerong, Grant Ngabidj, 1904-1977, as told to Bruce Shaw. Canberra: AIAS.

Nielson, C. 1983. The language development program for schools in Aboriginal communities, years 1-7. NT bilingual education newsletter 2. 43-4.

Northern Territory. Department of Education, Bilingual Education Section. 1973. Progress report on the bilingual education program in schools in the Northern Territory. Darwin: NT Department of Education.

O'Grady, G.N. 1960. New concepts in Nyanumada: some data on linguistic acculturation. Anthropological linguistics 2. 1-6.

Pirola, M.J. 1978. Aboriginal English. MA thesis, Monash University. AIAS MF (A1;B2)

Puruntatameri, P. 1982. Tiwi amintiya English. Ngali June 1982. 18.

Queensland. Education Department. 1973. Education of Queensland Aboriginal and Islander children. 30pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 2882. (A1;B5)

Readdy, C.A. 1961. South Queensland Aboriginal English: a study of the informal conversational speech habits of two Aboriginal communities in the area, with special reference to four male speakers of the 9-12 age group in the closed community of Cherbourg. BA (Hons.) thesis, University of Queensland. AIAS Ms 987. (A1;B5)

Reinecke, J.E. 1975. A bibliography of Pidgin and Creole languages. (Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, 14) Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

Richards, E. & Fraser, J. 1975. A comparison and contrasting of the noun phrases of Walmatjari with the noun phrases of Fitzroy Crossing children's pidgin. Paper presented to the 7th congress of the Linguistic Society of Australia, Sydney, August. manuscript. handout.

Rigsby, B. 1979. Pidgin-talk lo bamaga: Aboriginal English on northern Cape York Peninsula. 24pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 1583. (A1;B5)

_____ .1980. The language situation on Cape York Peninsula: past, present, future. In Wright, J., Mitchell, N. & Watling, P. (eds), Reef, rainforest, mangroves, man. Cairns: Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland.

Rumsey, A. 1983. On some syntactico-semantic consequences of homophony in north-west Australian Pidgin/Creole English. In Carrington, L. et al., Papers in pidgin and creole linguistics No.3. Canberra: PL, A-65. 177-189.

Sandefur, J.R. 1973a. Report on the second survey of Roper River creole English. 8pp. manuscript. AIAS p10886. (A2;B1)

_____ .1973b. Roper River lingua franca survey. 14pp. typescript. AIAS p10882. (A2;B1)

_____ .1973c. Roper River 'pidgin English' creole: a tentative analysis and comparison with English and Australian languages. 51pp. typescript. AIAS p10884. (A2;B1)

_____ .1974. Roper creole phonology (low level with orthographic considerations). preliminary draft. 11, 45pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 2769. (A1;B3)

_____ .1976a. Roper creole: an overview. preliminary draft. ii+99pp. typescript. AIAS Ms 1123. (A1;B3)

_____ .1976b. Roper creole verbs. preliminary draft. i+27pp. mimeo. AIAS pMs 2768. (A1;B3)

_____ .1976c. Kriol orthography. preliminary draft. 17pp. mimeo. AIAS pMs 2767. (A1;B3)

_____ .1979. An Australian Creole in the Northern Territory: a description of Ngukurr-Bamyili dialects. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-3) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1980a. Kriol - language with a history. manuscript. (published as Sandefur 1981e).

_____ .1980b. Kriol and the question of decreolization. manuscript.

_____ .1980c. Pidgin and creole in the Kimberleys, Western Australia. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Newsletter 14. 31-7.

_____ .1981a. Kriol - an Aboriginal language. Hemisphere 25(4). 252-6.

_____ .1981b. Developing a literature for Kriol. In Hargrave, S. (ed.), Literacy in an Aboriginal Context. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-6) Darwin: SIL. 115-133.

_____ .1981c. A New Aboriginal language? The Aboriginal Child at School 9. 52-60.

_____ .1981d. Emergence of a new Aboriginal language - Kriol. manuscript. (to appear in Anthropological Forum)

_____ .1981e. Kriol - language with a history. Northern Perspective 4. 3-7.

_____ .1982a. When will Kriol die out? In McKay, G.R. & Sommer, B.A. (eds). 34-45.

_____ .1982b. Kriol and the question of decreolization. International Journal for Sociology and Language 36. 5-13.

_____ .1982c. Extending the use of Kriol. In Bell, J. (compiler & ed.), Aboriginal languages and the question of a national language policy: a collection of papers presented at the second meeting of the A.L.A. held at Batchelor, NT April 1982. Aboriginal Languages Association. 18-24.

_____ .1983a. The Quileute approach to language revival programs. Aboriginal Child at School 11. 3-16.

_____ .1983b. Modern Australian Aboriginal languages: the present state of knowledge. English World-Wide 4. 43-68.

_____ .1983c. Dynamics of an Australian creole system. typescript.

_____ .1984a. Papers on Kriol: the writing system and a resource guide. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-10) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1984b. A language coming to age: Kriol of north Australia. MA thesis, University of Western Australia.

_____ .1985. English-based languages and dialects currently spoken by Aboriginal people: some suggestions towards a consensus on terminology. Australian Journal of Linguistics 5. 67-78.

Sandefur, J.R., Gumbuli, M., Daniels, D. & Wurramara, M. 1980. Looking for Kriol in Queensland. manuscript.

_____ .1980. Looking for Kriol in Queensland: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Newsletter 17. 35-40.

Sandefur, J.R. & Sandefur, J.L. 1979a. Pidgin and creole in the Kimberleys, Western Australia. 17pp. manuscript. AIAS p8360.

_____ .1979b. Beginnings of a Ngukurr-Bamyili Creole dictionary. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-4) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1979/80. Kriol tape transcriptions. 188pp. typescript. AIAS A3 268. (A3a;B1)

_____ .1980. Pidgin and creole in the Kimberleys, Western Australia. AIAS Newsletter 14. 31-37.

_____ .1982. Kriol - an Aboriginal language. Hemisphere 25. 252-6.

Sansom, B.L. 1983. Return to the camp at Wallaby Cross. Australian Society 2. 30-1.

Saunders, R.W. 1979. Interpretation and translation. In Brennan, G. (ed.), The need for interpreting and translation services for Australian Aboriginals, with special reference to the Northern Territory - a research report. Canberra: Department of Aboriginal Affairs.

Sayers, B.J. 1982. Aurukun children's speech: language history and implications for bilingual education. In McKay, G.R. & Sommer, B.A. (eds). 46-56.

Schmidt, A. 1983. Young people's Dyirbal: an example of language death from Australia. MA thesis, ANU. AIAS Ms 28.

_____ .1985. Young people's Dyirbal: an example of language death from Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, L. & Coker, J. 1977. The language programme in Aboriginal schools. Pivot 4. 25-7.

Sharpe, M. 1973. Notes on the 'pidgin English' creole of Roper River. 28pp. mimeo. AIAS pMs 1643. (A1;B5)

_____ .1974a. Report on Roper Pidgin and the possibility of its use in a bilingual program. In Report on the Third Meeting of the Bilingual Education Consultative Committee held in Darwin on 27-29 November 1974. Darwin: NT Department of Education.

_____ .1974b. Notes on the 'Pidgin English' creole of Roper River. AIAS Newsletter New Series. 2. 2-11. (Republished as Sharpe 1975.)

_____ .1975. Notes on the 'Pidgin English' creole of Roper River. Linguistic Communications 13. 38-60.

_____ .1976a. Roper Creole dictionary with English and Alawa. 43pp. mimeo. AIAS pMs 1139. (A1;B2)

_____ .1976b. English as she is spoken around here or a quick rundown on Aboriginal English in Alice Springs. 3pp. mimeo. AIAS p8731.

_____ .1976c. Alice Springs Aboriginal English tape transcription. 62pp. typescript. AIAS Ms 816.

_____ .1976/77. Alice Springs Aboriginal English. manuscript.

_____ .1977a. The English of Alice Springs Aboriginal children: report to teachers. 2 parts. typescript. AIAS Ms 1956.

_____ .1977b. Alice Springs Aboriginal children's English: report to parents. 7pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3961.

_____ .1977c. Alice Springs Aboriginal English. In Brumby, E. & Vaszolyi, E.G. (eds), Language problems and Aboriginal education. Perth: Mount Lawley College of Advanced Education. 45-50.

_____ .1978. Report on a research project on Alice Springs Aboriginal children's English. AIAS Newsletter 9. 57-61.

_____ .1979. Alice Springs Aboriginal children's English. In Wurm, S.A. (ed.), Australian linguistic studies. Canberra: PL, C-54. 733-747.

_____ .1983. Kriol: an Australian language resource. i+30pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3702.

Sharpe, M. & Sandefur, J. 1976. The Creole language of the Katherine and Roper River areas, Northern Territory. In Clyne, M. (ed.), Australia Talks: essays on the sociology of Australian immigrant and Aboriginal languages. Canberra: PL, D-23. 63-77.

_____ .1977. A brief description of Roper creole. In Brumby, E. & Vaszolyi, E. (eds). 51-60.

Shnukal, A. 1982. Why Torres Strait "Broken English" is not English. In Bell, J. (compiler & ed.), Aboriginal languages and the question of a national language policy: a collection of papers presented at the second meeting of the ALA held at Batchelor, NT April, 1982. Australian Languages Association. 25-35.

_____ .1983a. Torres Strait creole: the growth of a new Torres Strait language. Aboriginal history 7. 173-85.

_____ .1983b. Blaikman Tok: changing attitudes to Torres Strait Creole. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1983/2. 25-33.

_____ .1984. Torres Strait Islander students in Queensland mainland schools. Part 1: language background. Aboriginal Child at School 12. 27-33.

Sommer, B.A. 1974. Sociolinguistic issues in Australian language research: a review. 24pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 1625. (A1;B5)

Steffensen, M. 1975. Bamyili creole. 7pp. typescript. AIAS Doc. no.75/1849.

_____ .1977a. A description of Bamyili Creole. 32pp. AIAS pMs 179.

_____ .1977b. Double talk: when it means something and when it doesn't. CLS 13 603-611.

_____ .1979a. Reduplication in Bamyili Creole. In Muhlhausler, P. et al., Papers in Pidgin and Creole Linguistics No. 2. Canberra: PL, A-57. 119-133.

_____ .1979b. An example of lexical expansion in Bamyili creole. 7pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3210.

_____ .1980a. The effect of background information on intercultural communication - transcripts of subjects' recall protocols. 40pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 3225. (A1;B3)

_____ .1980b. The effect of background information on intercultural communication: the recall of Aboriginal and western descriptions of illness and treatment. 24pp. typescript. AIAS p8789.

Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch. nd. Report on work with Kriol speakers undertaken in 1982. 10pp. typescript. AIAS p10213.

Thieberger, N. 1987. Handbook of WA Aboriginal languages (south of the Kimberley region). first draft. typescript. Mt. Lawley: Institute of Applied Aboriginal Studies.

Thompson, D.A. 1976. East Cape York tape transcriptions. 8pts. manuscript. AIAS Ms 1332. (A2;B3)

_____ .1969/75. Tape transcriptions: Kuuku Ya?u, Umpila, Kaantju, Lockhart creole, Kuuku Yani. 22pts. typescript. AIAS Ms 23. (A1;B3 & A2;B3)

_____ .1972. Report (to AIAS) on the linguistic situation at Lockhart River and proposal for the development of a practical communication project. 6pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 1827. (A1;B3)

Thompson, H. 1976. Creole as the vernacular language in a bilingual program at Bamyili school in the Northern Territory. Thesis for Advanced Diploma, Torrens College of Advanced Education, Adelaide.

Urry, J. & Walsh, M.J. 1981. The lost 'Macassar language' of northern Australia. Aboriginal History 5. 90-108.

Vaszolyi, E. 1976. Aboriginal Australians speak: an introduction to Australian Aboriginal linguistics. Perth: Mount Lawley College of Advanced Education.

von Sturmer, J.R. 1981. Talking with Aborigines. AIAS Newsletter 15. 13-30.

Walker, R.F. 19 . The English used by Aboriginal children. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 6. 64-75.

_____ .1982. Report on the English spoken by Aboriginal entrants to Traeger Park School. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre.

Watson, M. 1982. Black reflections: a report funded by the Innovations Program of the Commonwealth Schools Commission. Wattle Park: Education Information Retrieval Service.

Wood, R. 1972a. Report on the Roper River survey. 10pp. holograph. AIAS pMs 2488.

_____ .1972b. Roper pidgin word list (1). 8pp. processed. AIAS pMs 2458.

_____ .1972c. Roper pidgin word list (2). 9pp. processed. AIAS pMs 2459.

_____ .1973a. Report of the Elcho Island survey. 19pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 2510.

_____ .1973b. Report on the survey of Dhangu dialects on Elcho Island. 19pp. typescript. AIAS pMs 2487.

Wurm, S.A. 1971. Pidgins, creoles, and lingua franche. In Sebeok, T.A. (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics. 8.2. The Hague: Mouton. 999-1021.

Yallop, C. 1982. Australian Aboriginal languages. London: Andre Deutsch.

Yiyili Aboriginal Community School. 1983. Yiyili school: a project of the Kriol class. (In Kriol) 9pp. manuscript. AIAS p10876.

Language programme:

Kriol literacy programmes have been running for a number of years in Bamyili and other centres in the NT, but to date only one programme has been implemented in the Kimberley. This is the Kriol literacy programme in Yiyili Community School, which began in 1983, and continues on a part-time basis, with the assistance of an SIL linguist from Halls Creek.

Language learning material:

Hastings, W. (ed.). 1977. Kriol prima. Produced by Ralph Dingul, Miriam Huddleston, Valmai Rogers, Christopher Miller; consultant: R. David Zorc. Batchelor: School of Australian Linguistics.

Sandefur, J.R. 1979. You can read Kriol. Illustrated by T. Farrel. (In Kriol) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1980. You can read Kriol. Kimberley edition. Illustrated by T. Farrel. (In Kriol) Darwin: SIL.

Sandefur, J.R. & Sandefur, J. 1978. Kriol language learning course - instruction manual. 1st draft. SIL. (See Sandefur & Sandefur, 1981.)

_____ .1981. An Introduction to Conversational Kriol. (Work Papers of SIL-AAB, B-5) Darwin: SIL.

Literacy material:

A great amount has been and is being produced at Bamyili and Ngukurr, or by students from there at SAL. See Sandefur (1981b:122-133) "Appendix 2: Complete bibliography of Kriol vernacular publications listed by year of publication", and Sandefur (1984a:118-140) for an extensive list. To date, little has been produced in the Kimberley dialect, although material in the NT dialect ought to be comprehensible.

The following is a partial list:

Andrews, J. 1979a. Wen ai bin lilgel langa timba kril. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979b. Wirliwirli: dijan perit im wirliwirli (inglish neim galah). (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Bamyili Kriol primers. (too numerous to list here) (p7371, p7734-35, p7842-43, p7900-04, p8142-58, are just some held at AIAS.)

Bamyili School. 1979. San im odwan, from routine classwork. Bamyili School, October 1979. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1983. Dijan tubala yangboi en sniek. (In Kriol) (Translated from the Warlpiri book, Wirriya-jarra manu warna. Yuendumu.) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1984. Ola gidap en laf stori. Illustrated by Tukumba, R. (In Kriol) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

Bennett, L. 1979a. Bili be:d. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979b. Hantingbat keinggurru. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979c. Stori bla lilboi imim git los. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979d. Thri biligut. (The three billy-goats, in Kriol.) Darwin: SIL-AAB.

_____ .1979e. Tubala tuwin brajagija. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979f. Wan lilboi en im imiyu. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Bible, New Testament Selections. 1979. Jisas bin born. (In Kriol) Canberra: Bible Society in Australia.

Brennan, Q. 1978. Drimtaim stori. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1984a. Lilboi en lilgel. Illustrated by Brown, I. (In Kriol) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1984b. Wanbala klebabala yangboi. (A clever young boy, in Kriol.) Illustrated by Tukumba, R. Katherine: Bamyili Press.

Bruce, D. 1978. Dubala yangboi en najalot stori. Illustrated by Wilfred Avelam, Matthew Rankin and Ron Manyita. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Brumel, J. 1978. Ngal gordowu en djirriti. Illustrated by David Jentian. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979a. Brolga stori. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979b. Diga jat rabijwan donggidongi. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979c. Senpaipa en kro. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Dobo, G. 1976. Woda lubra. [The water woman] (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili School.

Forbes, B. 1979a. Dijan stori blanga gorrbordok. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979b. Dubala beligin. (In creole) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979c. Stori blanga mi wan ai bin liligel. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Galmur, J. 1984. Ai bin faindim bigiswan woda. (In Kriol) Illustrated by Brown, I. Katherine: Bamyili Press.

Gulawanga, E. 1979. Dijan stori blanga tubala lilboi. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Gumbuli, M. 1979. God bin meigimbat dijan kantri. (God made this world, in Kriol.) Darwin: Wycliffe Bible Translators.

James, N. 1984a. Endi en kakatu. Kimberley edition. (In Kriol) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1984b. Kakatu bin album Endi. Kimberley edition. (In Kriol) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1986. Olgamen en olmen bin go wugubat. Halls Creek: SIL.

James, N. & Walker, A. 1984. Shugabeg. (In Kriol) Illustrated by Rivers, C. Darwin: SIL.

Jentian, D.N. 1976a. Bamyili Maih Maih Ngong. (In Ngalkbun, Creole and English) Bamyili: Bamyili School.

_____ .1976b. Gwena en lijid. (In Creole). Bamyili School.

_____ .1977. Anemlen stori. (Collection of stories in Kriol.) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979a. Iba beli rodiyo. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1979b. Stori bla ajbin en waif. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1980. Tubala stokmen. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Jentian, Q. 1978. Stori bla bogon. (In creole). Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

_____ .1980. Longtaim la somel. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Jentian, S.M. 1979. Korobri la homsted. (Illustrated by Q. Jentian, in Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Jungawanga, A. (illustrator). nd. Buk bla kalarimbat. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Jungawanga, A. & Bennett, L. 1979. Shak en weil. (In Kriol) Bamyili: Bamyili Press.

Mailangkuma, M. 1980. Ketfish, barramandi en sneik: catfish, barramundi and snake. Darwin: SIL.

Perinpanayagam, G.T. (compiler). 1979. Stories for bi-lingual situations and writing pads. Batchelor: School of Australian Linguists. (Stories in 3 booklets according to reading level, each booklet available in 4 different forms: stories-questions in Kriol-Kriol, Kriol-English, English-Kriol or English-English.)

Rankin, N. & Andrews, J. 1979. Maranboy stori. Illustrated by Rankin M. & Avalem, W. (In Kriol) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

Rankin, S. 1984. Mibala bin go langa Oenpelli. (In Kriol) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

Robertson, G.J. 1984. Dijan keinggurru im lukabat bla hom. (The kangaroo is looking for a home, translated from the Warlpiri book, Marlungku karla warrirni ngurraku. Yuendumu, 1975.) (In Kriol) Katherine: Bamyili Press.

Sandefur, J. & Sandefur, J.L. (eds). Wokabut la Ngukurr. (Walkabout at Ngukurr, in Kriol). Darwin: SIL.

Sharpe, M. 1976. Primers for Traeger Park Primary School. manuscript.

Skewthorpe, M. 1979. Kresin ligun. (Crescent lagoon, in Kriol.) Darwin: SIL.

_____ .1979. Misgida drimin. (Mosquito dreaming, in Kriol.) Darwin: SIL.

Thompson, W. 1980. Gundugundu en modiga la Ngukurr. (Cards and cars at Ngukun, in Kriol). Darwin: SIL.

Tukumba, Ross. 1980. Ola Dibrin Kain Tri. [Different kinds of trees]. Bamyili Press. 49p.

White, P.H. 1979. Mangki la bogipleis. (Monkey in the bog, in Kriol.) Darwin: Wycliffe Bible Translators.

Yiyili Children, WA. 1883a. Ola Kriol wed. [Kriol words] (Alphabet book). Yiyili: Yiyili Aboriginal Community School.

_____ . 1983b. Najalat Kriol wed. [Other Kriol words] (Alphabet book). Yiyili: Yiyili Aboriginal Community School.

_____ .1984. Baik buk. (Illustrated by T. Cox, in Kriol.) Darwin: SIL.

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Greg Dickson
Indigenous organisations: 
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census2990
2004NILSmany
2005Estimate-
2006Census4213
2011Census6780
2016Census7155

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Text Collection    
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
Grammar: 

Hudson, Joyce. 1983. Grammatical and semantic aspects of Fitzroy Valley Kriol. Darwin: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Munro, Jennifer. 2004. Substrate language influence in Kriol : the application of transfer constraints to language contact in Northern Australia, University of New England: PhD.

Dictionary: 

Sharpe, Margaret. 2001. Alawa Nanggaya Nindanya Yalanu rugalarra = Alawa-Kriol-English dictionary. Prospect,SA: Caitlin Press. Lee, Jason. Kriol-Ingglish Dikshenri. (MS 4570, ASEDA 0739, http://www1.aiatsis.gov.au/ASEDA/docs/0739-Kriol/index.1.html)

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)       Kriol  
Dixon (2002)          
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981)          
Oates (1975)          
Wurm (1972)          
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)