S4: Ngaralda

AIATSIS code: 
S4
AIATSIS reference name: 
Ngaralda

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Meru (Ngaralta)
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Ngaralta
Thesaurus heading language
Ngaralda language S4
Thesaurus heading (old)
Ngaralda / Brabirawilung language (S4) (SA SI54-13)
Tindale (1974)
Ngaralt, Ngaraltu, Wanaulun and Wanjakalde (Jarildekald terms), Wanyakalde, Wunyakalde, Wanakald.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Wanaulum, Wanjakalde, Wanyakalde, Wunyakalde, Wanakald, Ngaralt, Ngaraltu
Glottocode
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Other sources
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Synonyms
Meru, Ngaralta, Ngawait, Erawirungand, Rankbirit, Ngintait, Nganguruku, Ngaiawung, Agaraltu, Brabirawilung, Ngaralt, Ngaraltu, Wanakald, Wanaulum, Wanaulun, Wanjakalde, Wanyakalde, Wunyakalde
Comment
Comments: 
McDonald (2002:15) comments that Ngaralti (S4), Nganguruku S6, Ngaiawang S7 and Ngawait S10 seem to be closely related each other. However, she also notes that, according to Tindale (1974), vocabularies of these groups show differences. Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:31) also group them together under the 'Lower Riverland language', though they note that the names are more likely to be dialects than 'alternative designations', citing the distinct locations and differences in kinship terms described in Radcliffe-Brown (1918:243). Previously the Thesaurus had both Ngaralda and Brabirawilung as reference names for S4. However, according to Hercus (1965), Brabirawilung was from Gippsland, which does not correspond with the location of Ngaralda identified by Capell (1963). Further, Brabirawilung is given as an alternative of Brabralung S45 by Wurm (1972). Consequently, some of the items identified as Ngaralda in Mura may actually relate to Brabralung S45.
References: 
  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Hercus, Luise Anna. 1965. The survival of Victorian languages. Mankind 6(5):201-206.
  • McDonald, Maryalyce. 2002. A study of the phonetics and phonology of Yaraldi and associated dialects. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Oates, William J., and Lynette F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia: Australian Aboriginal Studies 33, Linguistic Series 12. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred R. 1918, 1923. Notes on the social organization of Australian tribes. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 48:222-253; 53:424-447.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2008. A handbook of Aboriginal languages of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Nambucca Heads: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
  • Wurm, S. A. 1972. Languages of Australia and Tasmania. The Hague: Mouton.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
SA
Location information: 
On Murray River from Wood Hill to Port Mannum, to Bremer Creek, Palmer, Mt. Lofty Ranges, S.A. (Oates & Oates 1970:130, Capell 1963). the banks of the Murray River between Swanport and Mannum (Radcliffe-Brown 1918:243). Murray River from Wood Hill to Port Mannum; west to Bremer Creek, Palmer, and eastern scarp of Mount Lofty Ranges (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available - unclear status
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganNarrinyericKorniNgaralda
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganNarrinyericKorniNgaralta
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganNarrinyericKorniNgaralta