S45: Brabralung

AIATSIS code: 
S45
AIATSIS reference name: 
Brabralung

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Name
Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Kurnai (Brabralung)
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Brabralung
Tindale (1974)
Brabrolung (['tera] = man), Brabrolong, Brabirra-wulung, Brabriwoolong, Wakeruk (Fison and Howitt, 1880:34), Bundah Wark Kani (i.e., ['ka:nai]), Bundhul Wark Kani (horde name), Muk-thang (language name), Gippsland dialect (of Thomas MS), ['ka:nai] = man.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Brabrawurung, Brabrolung, Brabrolong, Brabriwoolong, Tirthung, Tirtalowakani
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Mukthang [Clark 2011:34]
Synonyms
Kurnai, Braiakaulung, Bratauolung, Ganai, Krauatungalung, Tatungalung, Brabiralung, Brabirawilung, Brabirrawulung, Brabolong, Brabrawurung, Brabriwoolong, Brabrolong, Brabrolung, Bundah Wark Kani, Bundhul Wark Kani, Muk thang, Tirtalowakani, Tirthung, Wakeruk, Ganay Muk Thang, Muk Thang, Mukthang, man
Comment
Comments: 

This is a dialect of Kurnai S68 (Clark, 2005) and the Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages).

Gardner (1996:5) and Hercus (1969), however, treat it as the name of a group whose language is Kurnai S68.

Howitt (1996 1904:73) reports that Brabralung S45 is the name of a clan whose language is called Muk-Thang S45, being one of three dialects spoken by the Kurnai S68 people.

Walsh (1981) follows this analysis, but uses Muk-thang S68 for the cover term as well as one of the dialects, and with the addition of Bidhawal S49 as a fourth dialect (1981).

Of Bidawal S49, Howitt comments that it is a mixture of Kurnai (S68), Ngarigo S46 and 'Murring' (i.e. a Yuin language) (1996  [1904]:79-81).

 

References: 
  • Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Gardner, P.D. 1996. The language of the Kurnai tribes of Gippsland, with notes on grammar and pronunciation, by R. H. Mathews, and Kurnai-English, English-Kurnai vocabulary, compiled by P. D. Gardner. Ensay, VIC: Ngarak Press.
  • Hercus, L.A. 1969. The languages of Victoria. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Howitt, Alfred William. 1996 [1904]. The native tribes of south-east Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
VIC
Location information: 

Mitchell, Nicholson, and Tambo rivers; south to about Bairnsdale and Bruthen (Tindale 1974). (The southern part of this is assigned to Krauatungulung on Clark's map.)

 

Maps: 
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Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)          
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Ganay   Muk-Thang (Brabiralung) Muk-Thang [dialects: Muk-Thang (Brabiralung), Thangguai, Bidhawal, Nulit (spoken by the Braiakaulung, Bratauolung, Tatungalung tribes)]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Kurnic   Brabralung  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Kurnic   Brabralung (Brabirawilung)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Kurnic   Brabralung