S59: Dharawal / Tharawal

AIATSIS code: 
S59
AIATSIS reference name: 
Dharawal / Tharawal

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Name
ABN name
Dharawal language
ABS name
Dharawal
Horton name
Tharawal
Ethnologue name
Thurawal
ISO 639-3 code
tbh
Tindale name
Tharawal
Thesaurus heading language
Dharawal / Tharawal language S59
Thesaurus heading (old)
Dharawal / Tharawal / Dariwal language (S59) (NSW SI56-09)
Tindale (1974)
Darawa:l, Carawal (Pacific islands phonetic system, c = th), Turawal, Thurawal, Thurrawal, Thurrawall, Turu-wal, Turuwul, Turrubul, Turuwull, Ta-ga-ry (['tagara] = north), Five Islands tribe.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Dharawa, Thurrawal, Turuwul, Turrubul, Turuwull
Glottocode
thur1254
Other sources
Tharawal (Tindale 1974), Thurawal (Schmidt 1919a, 1919b), Mackenzie, O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin 1966, Tindale 194), Thurrawal (Mathews MS, 1901a, 1901b, 1903), Thur'rawal (Mathews MS, 1901a, 1901b), Turuwul (Ridley 1875), Turawal (Tindale 1940), Dharawal (Capell 1970, Wurm 1972), DharawaLl (Capell 1956, 1963, 1970), Oates (1970), Darawal (Capell unpublished grammar), Mathews (1964-1967) [Eades 1976] Darawal, Turrawal [Kohen & Steele 2009:224]
Synonyms
Thurawal, Wodiwodi, Dariwal, Gujangal, Guyangal, Dharawa, Thurrawal, Turuwul, Turrubul, Turuwull, Turawal, Dharawal, Darawal, Mathews, Darawa:l, Carawal, Thurrawall, Turu wal, Ta ga ry, Five Islands tribe
Comment
Comments: 
On the basis of available data on Wodi Wodi S58, Eades (1976) concludes that Wodi Wodi refers to the same language as Dharawal (S59). Besold (2012-13:2) treats Wodi Wodi as a local group name from the Illawarra area (Wollongong down to Jervis Bay) whose language is a southern dialect of Dharrawal (S59). See also Northern Dharawal D63.
References: 
  • Attenbrow, Valerie. 2002. Sydney's Aboriginal past: investigating the archaeological and historical records Sydney: UNSW Press.
  • Besold, Jutta. 2012-13. Language Recovery of the New South Wales South Coast Aboriginal Languages. Australian National University, PhD thesis. (R01524 MAR)
  • Eades, Diana. 1976. The Dharawal and Dhurga languages of the New South Wales south coast: Australian Aboriginal Studies, Research and Regional Studies 8. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2010. The Kuringgai puzzle. In Indigenous language and social identity: papers in honour of Michael Walsh, eds B. Baker, I. Mushin, M. Harvey & R. Gardner. Pacific Linguistics 626. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 
... spoken from the southern shores of Botany Bay to the Nowra-Jervis Bay area, and Dhurga from the Nowra-Jervis Bay area to Wallaga Lake (Eades 1976:5). ... from south side of Botany Bay,extending south as far as the Shoalhaven River; from the coast to the Georges River and Appin, and possibly as far west as Camden (Attenbrow 2002:34). ... on the south side of Botany Ban extending down the coast as far as Nowra and Jervis Bay (ALRRC). From south side of Botany Bay and Port Hacking to north of Shoalhaven River. Inland to Campbelltown and Camden (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
Ann Nugent developed curriculum materials for school use in 1980.
People: 
Diana Eades, Janet Mathews, Robert Mathews, Ann Nugent
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate4
2006Census-
2011Census16
2016Census27

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection Less than 20 pages 1
Grammar Sketch grammar (less than 100 pages) 2
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Eades, Diana. 1976. The Dharawal and Dhurga languages of the New South Wales south coast. Canberra:AIAS.

Dictionary: 
Eades, Diana. 1976. The Dharawal and Dhurga languages of the New South Wales south coast. Canberra:AIAS.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Yuin Thurawal Thurawal [dialects: Wadiwadi (Wodiwodi)]
Dixon (2002) SOUTHERN NEW SOUTH WALES GROUP New South Wales south coast group Dharawal Dharawal (or Thurrawal, Turuwul) further dialect: Wodi-Wodi
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Dharawal
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Yuin Dharawal
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Yuin Dharawal
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Yuin Dharawal
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Yuin Thurawal