Not to be confused with Guringay E95 from the mid-north coast, a language variety associated with E67: Gathang^ and E2: Warrimay.
Kohen (1993) suggests the term 'Kuringgai' (S62) was an invention of Fraser (1892) based on an early Dharruk S64 grammar. Attenbrow (2010:34) indicates there is no evidence for a separate Guringai (S62) language. She identifies the coastal dialect of Darug S64, in other words Eora S61, as being spoken in the area identified as Guringai (i.e. the north shore of Port Jackson) by Capell (1970).
Lissarrague (2006) treats Kuringgai as a people name, describing the Hunter River– Lake Macquarie language S99 as spoken by people now known as Awabakal S66, Kuringgai (S62), Wonnarua S63 and possibly Geawegal E1. In her later work (Wafer and Lissarrague 2008:160-164), Kuringgai/Karikal (S62) is treated as the name of a dialect of the Hunter River– Lake Macquarie language S99. Their analysis concludes that the language variety spoken by Kuringgai /Karikal (S62) belongs to the Hunter River– Lake Macquarie language S99, not Darug S64.
Wafer and Lissarrague (2008:162-163) distinguish between Fraser's 'super-language' usage of 'Kuringgai' (1892) and Capell's (1970) reference regarding a language spoken from north Sydney to Tuggerah Lakes on the Central Coast. The evidence suggests Kuringgai was spoken in the Central Coast region, extending south to Brisbane Waters. Wafer and Lissarrague also summarise the case made by Smith (2004) which resolves the confusion regarding Kuringgai and Gameraigal: the latter is based on a place name in north Sydney, 'Gameray' (see also Attenbrow 2010), but there is no language data associated with people who originally lived there. The language generally associated with north Sydney is the one spoken by Bungaree and his people, who were from the region to the north of Broken Bay and moved to north Sydney in the early nineteenth century. They were speakers of the dialect now called Kuringgai (S62).
... bounded on the south side by the Hawkesbury River, which separated them from the Sydney or Cammeray tribe (Mann 1886 as cited in Wafer & Lissarrague 2008:163). ... from Tuggerah Lakes to Brisbane Water, and perhaps extending a certain distance west along the northern side of Broken Bay (Wafer & Lissarrague 2008:164).
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Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.
Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).