S64: Dharug / Darug

AIATSIS code: 
S64
AIATSIS reference name: 
Dharug / Darug

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Name
Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
Dharug language
ABS name
Other Australian Indigenous Languages, nec (Dharuk etc.)
Horton name
Dharug
Ethnologue name
-
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Daruk
Tindale (1974)
Dharruk, Dharrook, Dhar'rook, Darrook, Dharug, Broken Bay tribe.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Oharruk, Dharrok
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Darrkinyung [Wafer and Lissarrague 2008] Dharruk (Mathews 1903), Dharoog [Kohen & Steele 2009:223-4]
Synonyms
Sydney, Dharuk, Other Australian Indigenous Languages, Dharuk etc, Daruk, Oharruk, Dharrok, Darrkinyung, Dharruk, Dharrook, Darrook, Broken Bay tribe
Comment
Comments: 

Attenbrow (2002) distinguishes Coastal S61 (sometimes referred to as Eora) and Hinterland dialects of Dharug (S64).

Kohen and Steele (2009:223-24) differentiate between coastal and inland Dharug varieties, noting that Parramatta appears to have been the boundary between the two.

Troy describes two dialects of the Sydney language, she indicates that neither Dharug (S64) nor Eora S61 are in the historical record as language names; written variations of the word Eora are defined as 'people, Aboriginal people' (2019: 37).

 

References: 
  • Attenbrow, Valerie. 2002. Sydney's Aboriginal past: investigating the archaeological and historical records Sydney: UNSW Press.
  • Kohen, Jim & Jeremy Steele. 2009 [1993]. An introduction to the Dharug language. In Blue Mountains Dreaming: the Aboriginal heritage, eds E. Stockton and J. Merriman, 223-228. Lawson: Blue Mountains Education and Research Trust.
  • Troy, Jakelin. 1994. The Sydney language. Canberra : Aboriginal Studies Press.

  • Troy, Jakelin. 2019. The Sydney language. 2nd edition. Canberra : Aboriginal Studies Press.

Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NSW
Location information: 

'Darug, hinterland dialect − on the Cumberland Plain from Appin in the south to the Hawkesbury River in the north; west of the Georges River, Parramatta, the Lane Cove River and Berowra Creek (Attenbrow 2002:34).

... extending along the coast to the Hawkesbury River, and inland to what are now the towns of Windsor, Penrith, Campbelltown, and intervening towns (Mathews 1903, in Kohen & Steele 2009:224).

 

 

 

Maps: 
-
Links
Programs
Activities: 

Darug Custodian Aboriginal Corporation is working on the establishment of community language centre in order to run language classes and support he Primary and High School (2007).

People: 
William Dawes, Jim Kohen, Jakelin Troy, W. Tench, D. Southwell, R.H. Mathews, J. Hunter, D. Collins, John Rowley
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS12?
2005Estimate0
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
-
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 

Troy, Jakelin. 2019. The Sydney language. 2nd edition. Canberra : Aboriginal Studies Press.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)   SYDNEY SUBGROUP*   Dharuk Dharuk possible further dialect names: Gamaraygal, Iora
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric   Dharuk  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Iyora Dharuk Dharuk [dialects: Guringgai (Kuringgai), Iyora]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Iora Dharuk  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Kuri Dharuk  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Yuin-Kuric Yuin Daruk