S65: Darkinyung

AIATSIS Code: 
S65
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Darkinyung

tab group

Name
ABN Name
-
ABS Name
-
Horton Name
Darkinung
Ethnologue name
-
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Darkinjang
Thesaurus heading
Darkinung / Darkinjung / Darkinoong language (S65) (NSW SI56-05)
Tindale (1974)
Darginjang, Darkinung, Darknung.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Darginyung
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Darknung (Enright), Darkiñoong, Darkin-nyoong, Darkiñung, Darkinyûng [Jones 2008:5] Darrkinyung [Wafer & Lissarrague 2010:147] 'the Hawkesbury-MacDonald River language', HMR [Wafer & Lissarrague 2010]
Synonyms
Darkinjung
Darkinung
Darkinjang
Darginyung
Darknung
Darkiñoong
Darkin nyoong
Darkiñung
Darkinyûng
Darginjang
Comment
Language comment
Wafer and Lissarrague suspect that two varieties of the same language were spoken on the northern shore of the Hawkesbury River: Darrkinyung (S65) and the Hawkesbury River– Broken Bay language S96, the former being the inland variety and the latter being the coastal variety. In the absence of an overall language name for these two varieties, they call the language the 'Hawkesbury – MacDonald River language' (2008:143-145). Based on similarity with positively identified Darkinyung data, Jones (2008) considers the following data to be Darkinyung for the purpose of her grammar and dictionary: the 'Hawkesbury River and Broken Bay' list in Tuckerman (1887), Mrs Eliza Dunlop's manuscript 'Language of the Wollombi Tribe' in Milson (c. 1840+), James Larmer's (1832-1853) wordlist 'Brisbane Water and Tuggerah Beach Lakes', and Horatio Hale's (1846) 'Sydney' list.
References

Attenbrow, Valerie. 2002. Sydney's Aboriginal past: investigating the archaeological and historical records Sydney: UNSW Press.
Hale, Horatio. 1846. United States Exploring Expedition. Volume VI: Ethnography and Philology. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard. Available online 2009.
Jones, Caroline. 2008. Darkinyung grammar and dictionary: revitalising a language from historical sources. Nambucca Heads, NSW: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Larmer, James. James Larmer - Notebook of Australian Aboriginal vocabularies, 1832-1853. State Library of NSW, MLMSS 7213.
Milson, Mrs. 1840+. Kamilaroi vocabulary. In Australian Aboriginal peoples: miscellaneous documents, ed. John McGillivray. Balgowlah: W & F Pascoe.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Tuckerman, J. 1887. The Hawkesbury River and Broken Bay. In The Australian race vol. 3, ed. E. M. Curr, 358-359. Melbourne: John Farnes, Government Printer.
Wafer, Jim, and Amanda Lissarrague. 2010. The Kuringgai puzzle. In Indigenous language and social identity: papers in honour of Michael Walsh, eds B. Baker, I. Mushin, M. Harvey & R. Gardner. Pacific Linguistics 626. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
NSW
Location information
... to the north-west of the Hawkesbury River/Sydney region (Attenbrow 2002:34). South of watershed of Hunter River, from well south of Jerry's Plains extending east toward Wollombi and Cessnock; at Putty, and ranging over portions of the Macdonald and Colo rivers. Near Wisemans Ferry on the Hawkesbury River (Mathews); western boundary (based only on Wiradjuri tribe data) was on the divide east of Rylstone (Tindale 1974). ... a considerable range of country in the counties of Hunter, Northumberland and Cook, extending from Wilberforce and Wiseman's Ferry on the Hawkesbury river, to Jerry's Plains and Singleton on the Hunter, and including the basins of the Colo and Macdonald rivers, Wollombi Brook and other streams. (Mathews 1903:271, in Jones 2008:3). ... the land extending from Bulga, near Singleton, down the watershed of the McDonald River and up to the watershed of the Nepean, to a point in about the same latitude of Campbelltown (Enright 1901:80, in Jones 2008:4). On the south of the Hunter River, extending thence to the Hawkesbury [...] the country watered by the Colo, Macdonald and Wollombi Rivers, with their numerous tributaries. (Mathews 1897:170-1, in Jones 2008:4). ... country from the Central Coast, westward across the Macdonald River and into the mountainous country between the Colo River and the Hunter Valley, although there is a divergence of opinion as to whether their country actually extended to the coast (Macqueen, 2004:18, in Jones 2008:5).
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
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NILS endangerment grade
-
Documentation
Document Score: 
5
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listSmall (20-100 pages)2
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarSmall grammar (100-200 pages)3
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
Jones, Caroline. 2008. Darkinyung grammar and dictionary: revitalising a language from historical sources. Nambucca Heads, NSW: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Dictionary: 
Jones, Caroline. 2008. Darkinyung grammar and dictionary: revitalising a language from historical sources. Nambucca Heads, NSW: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Programs
Activities: 
Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre is running the Darkinyung Language Revitalisation program and is currently producing A Learner's Guide to Darkinyung’ including ‘a wordlist and finder list’ and A Learner's Grammar’ (2007).
People: 
Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre, R.H. Mathews, W.J. Enright
Indigenous organisations: 
Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)SYDNEY SUBGROUP*DarkinjungDarkinjung
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganYuin-KuricDarkinyung
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganYuin-KuricIyoraDarkinyung
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganYuin-KuricKuriDarkinung
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganYuin-KuricKuriDarkinyung
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganYuin-KuricKuriDarkinung