S68: GUNAI / KURNAI

AIATSIS Code: 
S68
AIATSIS Reference name: 
GUNAI / KURNAI

tab group

Name
ABN Name
Kurnai languages (Previously Ganai language)
ABS Name
Kanai
Horton Name
Kurnai
Ethnologue name
-
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Kurnai
Thesaurus heading
Kurnai / Gunai language group (S68) (Vic SJ55)
Tindale (1974)
Kurmai (typographical error), Guna
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Kurnai, Kunnai, Ganai, Cunni, Gooni, Gunna [Gardner 1996:6] Gunnai [VACL]
Synonyms
Kanai
Muk thang
Gaanay
Kurnai
Kunnai
Brabralung
Braiakaulung
Bratauolung
Ganai
Krauatungalung
Tatungalung
Gunai group
Gurnai
Kurmai
Muk Thang
Kurnai
Cunni
Gooni
Gunna
Guna
Comment
Language comment
According to Clark (2005), Ganai (S68) has five dialects: Brataulung S39, Braiakaulung S41, Tatungalung S42, Krauatungalung S48 and Brabralung S45. Gardner (1996:5) and Hercus (1969), however, treat all of these as the names of groups whose language is Kurnai (S68). On the other hand, Howitt (1996:73) gives distinct names for the dialects spoken by each of the clans of the Kurnai group: Muk-thang by the Brabralung S45, Thangquai by the Krauatungalung S48, and Nulit S91 by the Brayakaulung S41, Brataualung S39 and Tatungalung S42. Walsh (1981) largely follows this analysis, differing in his use of Muk-thang as the cover term S68 (as does Wesson (2002:106-7)) as well as one of the dialects S45, and with the addition of Bidhawal S49 as a fourth dialect. Of Bidawal S49, Howitt (1996:79-81) comments that it is a mixture of Kurnai, Ngarigo S46 and 'Murring' (i.e. a Yuin language).
References

Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
Gardner, P. D. 1996. The language of the Kurnai tribes of Gippsland, with notes on grammar and pronunciation, by R. H.
Hercus, L.A. 1969. The languages of Victoria. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
Howitt, Alfred William. 1904. The native tribes of south-east Australia. London: Macmillan.
Mathews, and Kurnai-English, English-Kurnai vocabulary, compiled by P. D. Gardner. Ensay, VIC: Ngarak Press.
Walsh, Michael. 1981. Maps of Australia and Tasmania. In Language atlas of the Pacific area Pt 1, eds S. A. Wurm and Shirô Hattori. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Wesson, Sue C. 2002. The Aborigines of eastern Victoria and far south-eastern New South Wales, 1830 to 1910: an historical geography, Monash University: PhD.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
VIC
Location information
... almost all of Gippsland from Inverloch to Cann River (Gardner 1996:5).
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Oates 1973 Senate 1984 Schmidt 1990 Census 1996 Census 2001 NILS 2004 2005 estimate Census 2006
- - - - - - - 21
Speaker NILS table
6 4 3 3
1-19 years 20-39 years 40-59 years 60+
NILS endangerment grade
0
Documentation
Document Score: 
4
Documentation table: 
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
-
Programs
Activities: 
The Yirruk-Tinnor Gunnai/Kŭrnai Language Program ran for about 10 years. (2007) A short documentary by Suzanne Taylor has been made about the school language lessons for Gunnai. It is being shown on ABC Open television. (2012)
People: 
Luise Hercus, Alfred Howitt (Gippsland & East Gippsland Aboriginal Cooperative Ltd)
Classification
Classification table: 
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)       Muk-thang (Gaanay, Kurnai, Kunnai) Muk-thang (Gaanay, Kurnai, Kunnai) further dialects: Nulit, Thangquai, Bidhawal
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Ganay   Muk-Thang  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Ganay   Muk-Thang Muk-Thang [dialects: Muk-Thang (Brabiralung), Thangguai, Bidhawal, Nulit (spoken by the Braiakaulung, Bratauolung, Tatungalung tribes)]
Oates (1975) Unclassified     Gurnai  
Wurm (1972)          
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)