S72: Wichintunga

AIATSIS code: 
S72
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wichintunga

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
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Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Marditjali (Wichintunga)
Thesaurus heading language
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Thesaurus heading (old)
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Tindale (1974)
Worangarait (['wora] = plain country, ['ngara] = to exist in-name applied by Bunganditj), Worangarit, Wra-garait, Wintjabarap (language name), Lake Wallace tribe, Keribial-barap, ['tjal:e] = language, speech, Witjintanga (a hordal name), Wichintunga.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
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Other sources
Wichantunga [Blake 2003]
Synonyms
Marditjali, Wichantunga, language, speech, Witjintanga
Comment
Comments: 
Smith (1880:ix) recorded that the Aborigines of the south-east of South Australia were divided into five groups, each occupying its own territory and using different dialects of the same language. The five groups identified by Smith are Booandik S13, Pinechunga S78, Moatatunga S76, Wichantunga (S72) and Polijunga S79. Blake (2003:7), however, finds it impossible to align his sources of information with these dialects. On the basis of Smith (1880), Wichintunga could be treated as a dialect of Buandig S13, but it may just be the name of a group whose language is Buandig (see Blake 2003:7). Note that Smith does not use Buandig as a cover term. Berndt and Berndt (1993) report what Tindale identifies as Meintangk S14 as being part of the 'Milipi' language. Tindale's location and alternative names for Meintangk roughly correspond to Smith's five groups, excepting perhaps Bungandidj S8 in name (but not entirely in location). Note that Berndt and Berndt (1993:305) mention there being both Milipi-speaking and non-Milipi speaking Pungadidji S13. Ward (in Campbell 1934:25) also makes a distinction between the Penganka S14 and Boandik S13 groups, 'who formerly occupied the country from Mount Gambier to Tatiara. The dominion of the Boandiks comprised the southerly portion of that area, and the Pengankas roamed from Penola northwards.' Milipi may be the name of the language Smith refers to. Taplin's (1879:142-52) language data for the 'Guichen Bay tribe' may be Wichintunga.
References: 
  • Berndt, R.M. & C.H. Berndt. 1993. A world that was: the Yaraldi of the Murray River and the Lakes, South Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. (B B524.88/W2)
  • Blake, Barry. 2003. The Bunganditj (Buwandik) language of the Mount Gambier Region: Pacific Linguistics 549. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Campbell, 1934. Notes on the Aborigines of the south-east of South Australia, Part 1. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 58, pp. 22-32. (RS 50/8)
  • Howitt, Alfred. 1996 [1904]. The native tribes of south-east Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Smith, Christina. 1880. The Booandik tribe of South Australian Aborigines: a sketch of their habits, customs, legends and language. Adelaide: E. Spiller, Government Printer.
  • Smith, Christina. 1881. [Letter to A.W. Howitt], Mt. Gambier, Sept. 5, 1881 (MS 69).
Status: 
Potential no data
Location
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VIC
Location information: 
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Catalogue
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Programs
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
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Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)WEST VICTORIAN AREAL GROUPBungandik/Kuurn-Kopan-Noot subgroup*WichintungaBungandik (or Bundanditj) further dialects: Pinejunga, Mootatunga, Wichintunga, Polinjunga
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)