T9: Cape Portland Tasmanian

AIATSIS code: 
T9
AIATSIS reference name: 
Cape Portland Tasmanian

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Pyemmairrener
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
North East
Thesaurus heading language
palawa kani language T16
Thesaurus heading (old)
Pyemmairrener / Northeast Tasmania people (Tas SK55-04)
Tindale (1974)
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O'Grady et al (1966)
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Glottocode
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Other sources
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Synonyms
Pyemmairrener, Northeast tribe, North East, North eastern
Comment
Comments: 
The Tasmanian languages/dialects records are sparse. Crowley and Dixon (1981:402) say that Piper River T14, Cape Portland (T9) and Ben Lomond T7 form an 'interrelated group' - either the first two, or all three, could be dialects of a single language. However if Ben Lomand T7 is a separate language, it is likely to be 'genetically related' to Piper River T14 and Cape Portland (T9). Crowley (1993:54) concludes from examination of vocabulary lists and comments from colonial observations about who could and who could not understand each other that at least eight separate languages and possibly as many as twelve belong to Tasmania. Crowley and Dixon (1981:404) conclude there is no evidence to indicate a single Tasmanian language family, available evidence indicates two, four or even eight distinct families. Bowern (2012) groups twelve languages into four language macro-families (northeastern, Oyster Bay, southeastern (Bruny) and western) using methods from evolutionary biology to systematically investigate vocabularies, from thirty five language lists. Crowley and Dixon (1981:402-403) compare collected vocabularies from fifteen regions. This database assigns reference names for Tasmania based on this regional list. See also Northern T1; Oyster Bay T2; North-western T3; Northern Midlands T4; South-eastern T5; Macquarie Harbour T6; Ben Lomond T7; Big River T8; South-western T10; Robbin Island T11; Circular Head T12; Port Sorrell T13; Piper River T14 and Little Swanport T15. The areas defined as Cape Portland (T9), Ben Lomond T7 and Piper River T14 in Crowley and Dixon's map (1981:394) roughly coincide with the area defined as Pyemmairrener by Horton in the AIATSIS map of Aboriginal Australia. Cape Portland Tasmanian language data, along with historical sources from all Tasmanian languages and dialects, form the basis of palawa kani language T16 construction.
References: 
  • Bowern, Claire. 2012. The riddle of Tasmanian languages. Proceedings of the Royal Society. 279, 4590-4595. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1842
  • Crowley, Terry, and R. M. W. Dixon. 1981. Tasmanian. In Handbook of Australian languages vol. 2, eds R. M. W. Dixon and B. J. Blake, 395-421 + map p. Canberra: ANU Press.
  • Crowley, Terry. 1993. Tasmanian Aboriginal language : old and new identities. In Language and Culture in Aboriginal Australia, eds Michael Walsh and Colin Yallop, 51-71. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Plomley, Norman J.B. 1976. A word-list of the Tasmanian aboriginal languages. Launceston: The Author in association with Government of Tasmania.
  • Taylor, John Albert. 2010. Dictionary of Palawa ('Tasmanian Aboriginal') Place Names. MS 4970.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
TAS
Location information: 
TAS
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
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Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994) Tasmanian Stock Tasmanian Languages
Walsh (1981) Tasmanian Languages North-eastern
Oates (1975)
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)