W36: Kurrama

AIATSIS code: 
W36
AIATSIS reference name: 
Kurrama

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Other Australian Indigenous Languages, nec (Gurama)
Horton name
Kurrama
Ethnologue name
Kurrama
ISO 639-3 code
vku
Tindale name
Kurama
Thesaurus heading language
Kurrama language W36
Thesaurus heading (old)
Kurrama language (W36) (WA SF50-11)
Tindale (1974)
Jawunmara (Indjibandi term, applied also in a slightly different form to Mardudunera), Gurama, Kerama, Karama, Korama, Jana:ri (see note under Indjibandi).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Karama, Korama
Glottocode
kurr1243
Other sources
Karima, Korima [Dixon 2011:35]
Synonyms
Other Australian Indigenous Languages, Gurama, Janari, Jardira, Kerama, Korima, Gurrama, Jana:ri, Jawunmara, Karama, Karima, Korama, Kurama, Yarnarri, Yinyjiwarnti Kurrama, Mijarranypa, Marntartka, Ngamangamara
Comment
Comments: 
According to Dench (1990, as quoted in Wangka Maya 2001:9), there may be as many as five dialects of Kurrama: Yarnarri, Yinyjiwarnti Kurrama, Mijarranypa, Marntartka and Ngamangamara. Yindjibarndi W37 is closely related to Kurrama. Dixon (2002) lists treats them as the same language. Von Brandenstein (pMS 2126) says Kurrama is a Jindjiparndi W37 dialect, with almost identical vocabulary and grammar. Wordick (1982) says they are closely related and that some linguists would treat them as 'dialects of the same unnamed language' but that speakers consider them distinct. Tindale (1974) says the name Kurama W36, meaning 'highlanders', may also have been used as a descriptive term for Yindjibarndi people.
References: 
  • Brandenstein, Carl G. von. 1968. Interim report, 1968, no.1 (July-August). (PMS 2126)
  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dixon, Sally. 2011. How to read and write Pilbara languages. South Hedland: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. 2001. Kurrama wordlist & sketch grammar. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Wordick, F. J. F. 1982. The Yindjibarndi language: Pacific Linguistics C-71. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
Mutalkura (Top End Kurrama)- Hammersley Ranges, around Marandoo and Tom Price as far as Palm Spring; Punukunti (Bottom End Kurrama) - Duck Creek, around Boolgeeda Creek, the western arm of the Beasley River down to Cajuput Spring; Nhamarrnhamarra (Robe River Kurrama) - around Red HIll. This group joined with the Punukunti (Brehaut & Vitenbergs 2001 as quoted in Wangka Maya 2001) Plateau tops of Hamersley Range, north to cliff wall looking down on valley of Fortescue River; east to Mount McCrae at western boundary of Hamersley Station; south to headwaters of Duck Creek and upper Hardey River at Rocklea (Tindale 1974) Contemporary location Onslow, Tom Price (Dixon 2011:35)
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Alan Dench, Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates50
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt50-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS10
2005Estimate10
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Sketch grammar (less than 100 pages) 2
Audio-visual Less than 1 1
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Wangka Maya PALC. 2006. Kurrama wordlists & sketch grammar. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya PALC.

Dictionary: 
Wangka Maya PALC. 2006. Kurrama wordlists & sketch grammar. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya PALC. Burgman, Albert. 2006. Kurrama : Kurrama - English dictionary, English - Kurrama wordlist, topical wordlist and sketch grammar. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya PALC.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Coastal Ngayarda Kurrama
Dixon (2002) GASCOYNE RIVER TO PILBARA AREAL GROUP Pilbara/Ngayarta areal group Kurrama Yinjtjiparnrti/Kurrama Wordick (1982)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West Kurrama
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Coastal Ngayarda Kurrama
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Pilbara-Nyungar (Southwest) Coastal Ngayarda Gurama
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Ngayarda Kurama
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Ngayarda Kurama