W38: Ngarluma

AIATSIS code: 
W38
AIATSIS reference name: 
Ngarluma

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Name
ABN name
Ngarluma language
ABS name
Ngarluma
Horton name
Ngarluma
Ethnologue name
Ngarluma
ISO 639-3 code
nrl
Tindale name
Ngaluma
Thesaurus heading language
Ngarluma language W38
Thesaurus heading (old)
Ngarluma language (W38) (WA SF50-07)
Tindale (1974)
Ngalama, Gnalooma, Gnalouma, Gnalluma, Ngar-luma, Qualluana (a misreading of handwriting), Naluma (perhaps draftsman's error), 'Nickol Bay' tribe, Kymurra and Paljari (class terms of their social organization).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Gnalooma, Gnalouma, Gnalluma
Glottocode
ngar1287
Other sources
Ngalluma [Dixon 2011:38]
Synonyms
Kymurra, Ngaluma, Gnalluma, Gnalooma, Gnalouma, Jaburarra, Jaburrara ngarluma, Karira Ngaluma, Naluma, Ngalama, Ngallooma, Ngalluma, Ngalooma, "Nickol Bay" tribe, Paljari, Qualluana, Ngar luma, Nickol Bay tribe
Comment
Comments: 
According to Oates (1975:70), Ngarluma has three dialects: East Ngarluma W57, West Ngarluma W56 and a northern dialect called Jaburarra W47. This is based on von Brandenstein's research, who also mentions that there is minimal difference between East Ngarluma and West Ngarluma, and that all his informants spoke East Ngarluma (von Brandenstein 1966:2, PMS 2130). Von Brandenstein also refers to Ngarluma and Jindjiparndi W37 as 'dialects', while Simpson (1980) says the two are 'closely related'. On the other hand, Wangka Maya (2001:7) notes that Kariyarra W39 is closely related to Ngarluma and, according to a 'purely linguistic classification' (such as Dixon (1980), Dench (1982), and Thieberger (1993)), they are dialects of the same language.
References: 
  • Brandenstein, Carl G. von. 1966. Interim report (3) [to A.I.A.S.] on field NW - WA 15.8.65 - 15.9.65. (PMS 2130).
  • Dench, Alan. 1982. The development of an accusative case marking pattern in the Ngayarda languages of Western Australia. Australian journal of linguistics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 43-59.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 1980. The languages of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dixon, Sally. 2011. How to read and write Pilbara languages. South Hedland: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • O'Grady, G. N., C. F. Voegelin and F. M. Voegelin. 1966. Languages of the world: Indo-Pacific fascicle six. Anthropological Linguistics 8(2).
  • Simpson, Jane. 1980. Ngarluma as a W* language. Typescript. (MS 1859).
  • Sutton, Peter. 1995. Country: Aboriginal boundaries and land ownership in Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal History Inc.
  • Thieberger, Nicholas. 1993. Handbook of Western Australian Aboriginal languages south of the Kimberley region: Pacific Linguistics C-124. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. 2001. Karriyarra topical wordlist and accompanying picture book. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  • Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. 2001. Kariyarra wordlists & sketch grammar. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
Port Walcott, Roebourne and vicinity; at Sherlock River; inland to the foot of the uplands from 40 to 70 miles (65 to 110 km.); east to Depuch Island and Balla Balla; they visited islands off Nickol Bay but not those off Hampton Harbour which belonged to the Jaburara; west almost to Maitland River. Note that Curr's 'Markand' River is a misreading of Maitland (Tindale 1974). Ngarluma were at Roebourne and south to the ranges (Palmer in Sutton 1995:99). Contemporary location: Roebourne and surrounding towns (Dixon 2011:38).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Ken Hale, von Brandenstein, Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates80
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt100
1996Census19
2001Census9
2004NILS
2005Estimate9
2006Census32
2011Census44
2016Census42

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Text Collection Large (more than 200 pages) 4
Grammar Sketch grammar (less than 100 pages) 2
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Kohn, Allison. 2001. A morphological description of Ngarluma. South Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya PALC.

Dictionary: 
Thieberger, Nicholas. c2001. Ngarluma-English dictionary: a compilation of files produced from Ken Hale's fieldnotes. Port Hedland, WA: Wangka Maya PALC. Wangka Maya PALC. 2004. Ngarluma-English Dictionary. South Hedland. Wangka Maya PALC.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan South-West Coastal Ngayarda Ngarluma
Dixon (2002) GASCOYNE RIVER TO PILBARA AREAL GROUP Pilbara/Ngayarta areal group Ngarluma (or Kymurra) Ngarluma (or Kymurra)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan South-West Ngarluma
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan South-West Coastal Ngayarda Ngarluma
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Pilbara-Nyungar (Southwest) Coastal Ngayarda Ngarluma
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Ngayarda Ngarluma (Ngaluma)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Ngayarda Ngaluma