A60: Widagari

AIATSIS code: 
A60
AIATSIS reference name: 
Widagari

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Nyamal (Widagari/Witukari)
Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Njamal (Widagari)
Thesaurus heading language
Widagari language A60
Thesaurus heading (old)
Witukari language (A60) (WA SF50-04)
Tindale (1974)
Nyamal, Nyamel, N'amal, Njalmal (probably a draftsman's error), Namal, Namel, Gnamo (in Leiden Museum MS), Tjingkai Njamal (hordes near Strelley River), Ibarga (upper Oakover River hordes), Ibarrga, Ibargo, Njamat (an Indjibandi version of name), Wanbarda (Njan-gamarda name for this, the Ngarla and the Kariara tribe, it means 'lowlands people'), Widagari (the southeastern hordes of Njamal), Widagaree, Wirdakarri, Weedokarry, Weedookary, Pundju Njamal ('heavy' speakers of Njamal), Pundu N'amal.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Widagari, Widagaree, Weedokarry, Weedookarry
Glottocode
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Other sources
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Synonyms
Widugari, Nyamal, Widagari/Witukari, Pundju, Witukari, Weedokarry, Weedookarry, Widagaree, Widakari, Wirdagari, Wirdakarri, Wirdugari, Njamal, Nyamel, Namal, Njalmal, Namel, Gnamo, Tjingkai Njamal, Ibarga, Ibarrga, Ibargo, Njamat, Wanbarda, Weedookary, Pundju Njamal, Pundu Namal
Comment
Comments: 
According to the ILDB, Geytenbeek (p.c.) says speakers of local languages (which ones is not made clear) use the name Witukari to refer to 'easterners' of three languages - Witukari Nyamal A58, Witukari Nyiyapali A50 and Witukari Palyku A55. As such, it appears not to refer to a specific language variety. However, Dixon (2007 p.c.) treats Widugari A60 as a dialect of Nyamal A58 since its vocabulary is very similar.
References: 
  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Radcliff-Brown, Alfred. 1930-1931. Social organization of Australian tribes. Oceania -- 1930, v.1, no.1; [34]-63; no.2; [206]256; no.3; [323]-341; 1931; no.4; [426]-456
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 

South of the Oakover river (Oates 1975:73). Nyamal: the hordes on the Nullagina River between Nullagine and Meentheena on the east and north to Callawa are distinguished as the ['Widagari] (they speak 'light' Njamal) (Tindale 1974).

Maps: 
  • Tindale, Norman. 1974. Tribal boundaries in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development.
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual Less than 1 1
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)   GASCOYNE RIVER TO PILBARA AREAL GROUP Pilbara/Ngayarta areal group Widugari Nyamal further dialects: Ibarga, Widugari
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981)          
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Pilbara-Nyungar (Southwest) Inland Ngayarda Widagari  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Southwest (or Nyungic) Ngayarda Widugari (Widagari)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Southwest Ngayarda Widugari