K31: Wenambal

AIATSIS code: 
K31
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wenambal

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
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Ethnologue name
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ISO 639-3 code
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Tindale name
Wenambal (Wembria)
Thesaurus heading language
Wenambal language K31
Thesaurus heading (old)
Wembria language (K31) (WA SD52-10)
Tindale (1974)
Wenambal (language term applied north and west of Forrest River Mission but excluding the Miwa), Wanum-baal, Wembria, Wemrade, Namula (horde upstream from Mission), Kulunggulu (a northern horde name), Bugai (a southern horde name), Jura (eastern horde name but may belong to Jeidji tribe), Marokorei (western horde name), Mirray-gona, Bemba (means north, hence Bembara), Jan-gala (a northeastern horde), Guragona (southeastern horde name but may belong to Jeidji), Guragoona, Waringnari [sic] (derogatory name reminding of the Waringari = cannibal term farther inland to the south), Kular (means 'northwest'; name applied by coastal people of Cambridge Gulf), Kulari, Mulngane (Berkeley River; perhaps a horde, applied also at Kalumburu to people who come from the northwest), Mulgane.
O'Grady et al (1966)
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Glottocode
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Other sources
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Synonyms
Bemba, Bugai, Guragona, Guragoona, Jangala, Jura, Kular, Kulari, Kulunggulu, Marokorei, Mirray gona, Mulgane, Mulngane, Namula, Wanumbaal, Waringnari, Wembria, Wemrade, Wanum baal, Jan gala
Comment
Comments: 
Capell describes Wembria (K31) as a Forrest River dialect (Western Australia), long with Andidja K23, Gwini, Walar K45, Jeidji K32 and Manungu K46 (1963: K8). Oates and Oates (1970) list Wembria under 'Residue - Kimberleys Area' (1970:45); in her later work, Oates describes Wembria as 'possibly a territorial name' and deletes it (1975:370). Tindale describes Wembria as an alternate name for Wenembal (1974:260), a name used in modern times for this language group, which was formally called Wembria in this database.
References: 
  • Wunan Regional Council (WA) Annual Report. 1998/99, p. 9.
  • Oates, William J., and Lynette F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia: Australian Aboriginal Studies 33, Linguistic Series 12. Canberra: AIAS.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Glasgow, David. Report [to A.I.A.S.] on surveys of languages and dialects of the north - east Kimberleys, typescript. (PMS 656).
  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Capell, Arthur. 1972. The languages of the northern Kimberley, WA: some structural principles. Oceania 43(1):54-65.
  • Capell, Arthur. 1984. Comparative studies in Northern Kimberley languages: Pacific Linguistics C-69. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Summer Institute of Linguistics. AIAS word list for N.E. Kimberleys survey : Bugay language, A.I.A.S. tapes A2179, 2182, 2189, 2190, 2191. PMS 1798.
Status: 
Potential data
Location
State / Territory: 
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Location information: 
Forrest River, WA (Oates & Oates 1970:46).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)Wembria
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)