N116: Dhuwaya

AIATSIS code: 
N116
AIATSIS reference name: 
Dhuwaya

tabs_horizontal

Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
Dhuwaya
Horton name
-
Ethnologue name
Dhuwal [Dhuwaya]
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
-
Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
Tindale (1974)
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
-
Other sources
Baby Gumatj (Courtenay & Alpher 1975, Morphy 1983, Walker 1984, Ganambarr & Sommer 1978), Baby Yolngu (Walker 1984, Ganambarr & Sommer 1978) [Amery MS 2823:20]
Synonyms
Dhuwal/Dhuwala, possibly also Dhuwaya, Dhuwal
Comment
Comments: 

Dhuwaya is a common contemporary dialect of Yolngu which has arisen from language contact. It is also known as Baby Gumatj (N116). Thus, unlike other Yolngu dialects, Dhuwaya has no clan affiliations and no associated territory, although it is associated in a non-traditional way with the Yirrkala settlement. It is used universally by the younger generation in all informal contexts, but regarded as a low status, stigmatized dialect (Amery, 1985:2). Dhuwaya can be regarded as a variety of the Dhuwala N199 - Dhuwal N198 - Dhay'yi N118 language. More specifically it shares features with the Eastern and Southern Dhuwala N199 and Dhuwal N198 varieties (Amery, 1985:19). Heath indicates it includes a portion of Madarpa mata N111 (1980:1). For Yolngu languages see Yolngu Matha N230.

References: 
  • Amery, Robert. 1985. A new diglossia: contemporary speech varieties at Yirrkala in north east Arnhem Land, Australian National University: MA. (MS2823).
  • Heath, Jeffrey G. 1980. Basic materials in Ritharngu: grammar, texts and dictionary: Pacific Linguistics B-62. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 

it is associated with the Yirrkala settlement in a non-traditional way (Amery MS 2823:2).

Maps: 
-
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Yirrkala Community Literature Production Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate1600 - 1700
1990Schmidt1700 - 2000
1996Census3648
2001Census1387
2004NILS-
2005Estimate1500
2006Census326
2011Census285
2016Census334

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list None 0
Text Collection   2 (Gumatj)
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
-
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Yuulngu Dhuwal Dhuwal [Dhuwaya] Dhuwal [dialectes: Dhuwaya, Dhuwal, Liyagawumirr, Marrangu, Marrakulu, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Datiwuy]
Dixon (2002)   YOLNGU SUBGROUP* Southern Yolngu subgroup* Dhuwal/Dhuwala (possibly also Dhuwaya) Dhuwal/Dhuwala (possibly also Dhuwaya) Morphy (1991), Wilkinson (1991) dialects include (a) Dhuwala varieties (Yirritja moiety): Gupapuyngu, Gumatj; (b) Dhuwal varieties (Dhuwa moiety): Djambarrpuyngu, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Guyamirlili (Gwijamil)
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Yuulngu   Dhuwaya  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuulngu   Dhuwaya  
Oates (1975) Unclassified     Wulamba  
Wurm (1972)          
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)