N37: Wurrugu

AIATSIS code: 
N37
AIATSIS reference name: 
Wurrugu

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Name
ABN name
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ABS name
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Horton name
Wurango
Ethnologue name
Wurrugu
ISO 639-3 code
wur
Tindale name
Wurango
Thesaurus heading language
Wurrugu language N37
Thesaurus heading (old)
Wurangu language (N37) (NT SC52-16)
Tindale (1974)
Wurrunga, Wurrango, Wuru:ku, U:ru:ku, Auwul-warwak, Wa:reidbug, Woreidbug, Warooko, Ja:lo (['ja:lo] = no), Yarlo, ? Limba-Karadjee (but see Iwaidja).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
wurr1238
Other sources
Popham Bay language [Earl] Popham Bay language [Schmidt, in Evans 2006:3] (W)urugu [Harvey PMS 5822] Wurruku [Marrala et al. 2008:viii]
Synonyms
Popham Bay language, Iyi, Limpapiu, Wurango, Iji, Jarle, Lyi, Urugu, Warange, Warragu, Warrka, Warrooka, Wurengo, Wurruga, Yarlo, Wurangu, Wurrunga, Wurrango, Wuruku, Uruku, Auwul warwak, Wareidbug, Woreidbug, Warooko, Jalo, Limba Karadjee
Comment
Comments: 
According to Evans (1996:91), Wurrugu is one of four language varieties once spoken around the eastern end of the Cobourg Peninsula in NT, in the area stretching from Popham Bay west to Cape Don. The four varieties are Wurrugu, Burdinmanduwij N185, Wurdang N181 and Ngardawuli N179. Further, Evans (2007 p.c.) comments that Wurrugu is most likely what was recorded as Popham Bay language by Earl (1853). In his 1846 publication, Earl describes how the four groups of the Cobourg peninsula are identified by the word for 'no' in their respective dialects. What he refers to as 'Popham Bay language' in his 1853 'The native races of the Indian archipelago', he identifies as 'Iyi' in 1846. Tindale (1974) says that Earl's 'Iyi' is the same as modern Iwaidja N39. (Supporting this hypothesis is the fact that 'iyi' is the Iwaidja word for 'yes' (not 'no')). These two assessment appear contradictory, but Powell (1982:93) notes Tindale's suggestion that Iyi and Yarlo (Earl's Port Essington tribe) may be 'older sub-tribal designations of Warooko'.
References: 
  • Earl, George Windsor. 1846. On the Aboriginal tribes of the northern coast of Australia. Royal Geographical Society of London Journal, vol. 16. (p EAR)
  • Earl, George Windsor. 1853. The Native races of the Indian Archipelago: Papuans. London: Hippolyte Bailliere. (RB E126.4/N1)
  • Evans, Nicholas. 1996. First - and last - notes on Wurrugu. University of Melbourne Working Papers in Linguistics 16:91-98.
  • Powell, Alan. 1982. Culture contact and changes in land occupation on the Cobourg Peninsula. North Australia Research Bulletin, nos. 6 - 8. (S 91/4).
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
... eastern end of the Cobourg Penninsula in NT, in the area stretching from Popham Bay west to Cape Don (Evans 1996). This language is now spoken chiefly at the settlement on Croker Island. However it is historically associated with the mainland opposite Croker - the neck of Cobourg Peninsula and the area around Murganella. The language associated with Croker is Marrgu (Harvey PMS 5822). Cobourg Peninsula from the drainages leading into Port Victoria on the northern side and from about Wangarlu Bay on the southern side (Harvey ASEDA 802). Western end of Cobourg Peninsula (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
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Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
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People: 
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Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listLess than 20 pages1
Text CollectionNone0
Grammar1 (phonology)
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
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Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)YiwaidjanYiwaidjicWurruguWurrugu [dialectes: Close to Iwaidja.]
Dixon (2002)NORTH-WEST ARNHEM LAND SUBGROUP*Popham Bay language (= Iyi, Limpapiu)Popham Bay language (= Iyi, Limpapiu)
Wurm (1994)
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)Wurangu
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)