This record is under construction.
A creole is a language with a particular history. Creoles emerge from contact languages, also known as pidgins. These are creative responses by people without a common language and are used in restricted domain, such as trade. They are often the result of colonial impositions on Indigenous populations. Pidgins become creolised when a generation of people use and expand the contact language and it develops into a full language, capable of meeting all communicative demands in all social contexts.
Kimberley Kriol has similar origins to P1: Kriol, but uses a different orthography to Kriol which highlights social and identity differences.
See also P1: Kriol and P2: Torres Strait Creole.
Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.
Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).