S25: Keerray Woorroong^

AIATSIS code: 
AIATSIS reference name: 
Keerray Woorroong^


Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
ABS name
Horton name
Ethnologue name
ISO 639-3 code
Tindale name
Tindale (1974)
Kirawirung (valid alternative), Kirraewuurong, Ko-noug-willam (? typographical error), Manmait, Dantgurt, Dautgart, Tantgort, Targurt, Dyargurt, Jarcoort (apparently the horde at Jancourt), Bolaga (horde at Lake Bolac), Bolagher, Mount Shadwell tribe, Colongulac tribe (a horde), Warntalliin (lit. 'rough language,' a name given them by western tribes), Ngutuk (of neighboring tribes; means 'you'), Ngutung. Word for man = ['ma:r].
O'Grady et al (1966)
Kirawirung, Kirraewuurong
Other sources
Kirrae wuurong, Kirrae wuurong blood lip tribe, Kirrim kirrim wuurong, Kirru-wurru, Kiri wurru, Kiriwoorong language, Girriwurru, Kirrae(-wurrong), Kirrae, Kir:ae, Giri-wurung, Kirroe wurrong Blood Lip tribe, Kir:re, Kirrae, Kirawirung (a valid alternative according to Tindale 1974) [word for man = 'ma:r'], Kirrai, Kirrea-wuurong, Kirrea, Kirrae worong, Ngutuk, Ngutung, Wirngilg-nad-dhalinanong, Wirngill gnatt tallinanong, Girai wurung [Clark 1990] Giraiwurrung [Clark 2005] Kirrae wuurong (Kiriwurrung) [Blake 2003]
Giraiwurung, Kirae, Bolaga, Bolagher, Colongulac tribe, Dantgurt, Dautgart, Dyargurt, Jarcoort, Kirawirung, Kirrae, Kirraewuurong, Kirrea, Konoug willam, Manmait, Mount Shadwell tribe, Ngutuk, Ngutung, Tantgort, Targurt, Warntallin, Girrea, Kii Wuurong, Kirrae Wuurong, Kirrae wuurong, Kirrae wuurong blood lip tribe, Kirrim kirrim wuurong, Kirru wurru, Kiri wurru, Kiriwoorong language, Girriwurru, Kir:ae, Giri wurung, Kirroe wurrong Blood Lip tribe, Kir:re, Gunditjmara
Clark (1990:192, 2005:13) treats Giraiwurrung (S25) as both a dialect and language name and identifies Wirngilgnad-dhalinanong S80 is a 'sub-dialect'. Clark says that these two were part of a dialect continuum with a number of other varieties, among them Dhauwurdwurrung S20 and Djargurdwurrung S73. Blake (2003:8-12), referencing Dawson (1881), includes Kirrae wuurong (Kiriwurrung) (S25) and Wirngill gnat tallinanong S80 as two of eight dialects comprising the Warrnambool language, the others being Katubanuut S71, Warn tallin (Warn thalayn) S73, Kii wuurong (Kayiwurrung) S74, Kuurn kopan not (Kurnkupanut) S75, Peek whurrong (Pikwurrung) S77 and Wuluwurrung S81. In his Bunganditj sketch grammar, Blake (2003:xii) notes that the community has adopted the name Keerraywoorroong for this language. In her 'Dictionary of Keerraywoorroong and related dialects', Krishna-Pillay (1996:17-18) describes seven closely related dialects, a list which partially overlaps with Blake's, plus Thawoortwoorrong (Dhauhurtwurru) S20, minus S71 and S80. Krishna-Pillay says that, historically, there was no general name for this language (p. 17) and discusses the various labels that have been used, including Gunditjmara (p.18). The Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages follows Clark in treating Keerray Woorroong as a separate language.
  • Blake, Barry. 2003. The Bunganditj (Buwandik) language of the Mount Gambier Region: Pacific Linguistics 549. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Blake, Barry. 2003. The Warrnambool language: a consolidated account of the Aboriginal language of the Warrnambool area of the western district of Victoria based on nineteenth century sources: Pacific Linguistics 544. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Clark, Ian. 1990. Aboriginal languages and clans: an historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800-1900: Monash Publications in Geography, 37. Melbourne: Department of Geographical and Environmental Science, Monash University.
  • Clark, Ian. 1996. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria: a reconstruction. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Clark, Ian. 2005. Aboriginal language areas in Victoria - a reconstruction: a report to Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages.
  • Dawson, James. 1881. Australian Aborigines: the languages and customs of several tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia. Melbourne: George Robertson.
  • Krishna-Pillay, Sharnthi. 1996. Dictionary of Keerraywoorroong and related dialects. Warrnambool, Vic.: Gunditjmara Aboriginal Cooperative, 1996. (L G382.003/1)
State / Territory: 
Location information: 

Mount Shadwell, Spring Creek (Blake 2003:9)

South West Aboriginal Languages Committee
Year Source Speaker numbers

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar None 0
Audio-visual None 0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005)          
Dixon (2002)          
Wurm (1994)          
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Bungandidj Kii Wuurong, Kirrae Wuurong Kuurn Kopan Noot [dialects: Kuurn Kopan Noot, Kii Wuurong, Kirrae Wuurong, Chaap Wuurong, Peek Whurrong]
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Drual (Bungandidj) Girrea  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Drual Kirrea  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Kulinic Drual Kirrea