W21: Tharrkari

AIATSIS code: 
W21
AIATSIS reference name: 
Tharrkari

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Name
ABN name
Tharrkari language (Previously Thargari language)
ABS name
-
Horton name
Tharrgari
Ethnologue name
Dhargari
ISO 639-3 code
dhr
Tindale name
Targari
Thesaurus heading language
Tharrkari language W21
Thesaurus heading (old)
Tharrkari / Tharrgari language (W21) (WA SF50-13)
Tindale (1974)
Tarugari, Dargari, Tarkari, Tarkarri, Dalgari, Tarl-garri.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Dargari, Tarkarri
Glottocode
dhar1247
Other sources
Tharrgari [Alpher 2006.p.c.] Tarlgarri, Thadgarri [Dixon 2011:26]
Synonyms
Dhargari, Tharrgari, Targari, Tharkarri, Dalgari, Dargari, Tarkari, Tarkarri, Tarlgarri, Tarugari, Thadgarri, Thargari, Tarl garri
Comment
Comments: 
Tharrgari (W21) is a Pama Nyungan language of the Mantharta group, along with Jiwarli W28, Thiin W25 and Warriyangka W21 (Austin, 1991:20). Austin describes two dialects of Dhargari (W21) which are virtually identical, differing only in whether they have collapsed or retained the contrast between laterals and stops. Austin refers to them descriptively as the 'd-dialect' and the 'l-dialect'. As they have no known names, these dialects are not included as language headings in the Thesaurus (1981:207).
References: 
  • Austin, Peter. 1981. Proto-Kanyara and proto-Mantharta historical phonology. Lingua, vol. 52, pp. 295-333. (p AUS)
  • Austin, Peter. 1991. Double case-marking in Kanyara and Mantharta languages Western Australiain La Trobe working papers in Linguitics, Vol 4, pp19-35.
  • Sutton, Peter. 1995. Country: Aboriginal boundaries and land ownership in Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal History Inc.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
WA
Location information: 
On Lyndon Station and the coastal plain south of the Lyndon River and west of Round Hill; east to Hill Springs and Minilya River headwaters; south to Middalya, Moogooree, and Kennedy Range. Post-European migration took them east to the Lyons River (Tindale 1974). [Tharrkari's] western extent was to Lyndon and Williambury Stations and they were not north of Maroonah (Austin in Sutton 1995:97).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Peter Austin, Terry Klokeid, Geoffrey O'Grady, Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS2
2005Estimate2
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listSmall (20-100 pages)2
Text CollectionLess than 20 pages1
GrammarSketch grammar (less than 100 pages)2
Audio-visual1-102
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Klokeid, Terry. 1969. Thargari phonology and morphology: Pacific Linguistics B12. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Dictionary: 
Austin, Peter. 1992. A dictionary of Tharrgari, Western Australia. Bundoora: La Trobe University.
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestInland NgayardaDhargari
Dixon (2002)GASCOYNE RIVER TO PILBARA AREAL GROUPTharrkari,Mantharta dialects: Tharrkari, Warriyangka, Tjiwarli, Thiin
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestDhargari
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestKanyaraDhargari
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganPilbara-Nyungar (Southwest)KanyaraDargari
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganSouthwest (or Nyungic)ManthardaThargari
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganSouthwestKanyaraTargari