E37: Bidjara / Bidyara

AIATSIS code: 
E37
AIATSIS reference name: 
Bidjara / Bidyara

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Name
ABN name
Bidjara language
ABS name
Bidjara
Horton name
Bidjara
Ethnologue name
Bidyara
ISO 639-3 code
bym
Tindale name
Pitjara
Thesaurus heading language
Bidjara / Bidyara language E37
Thesaurus heading (old)
Bidjara / Bidyara language (E37) (Qld SG55-03)
Tindale (1974)
Bidjera, Peechera
O'Grady et al (1966)
Bidjera, Peechera
Glottocode
bidy1243
Other sources
Bitharra [Myles 1886]
Synonyms
Pitjara, Bidjera, Bithara, Bitjara, Minkabari, Peachera, Peechera, Pitteroo, Wilya, Bitharra
Comment
Comments: 
Not to be confused with Bidjara L43 of the Bulloo River. Breen (1973:3-4) says that, while previously there was greater difference between the two, he now writes that Bidjara / Bidyara and Gungabula E35 are virtually identical. He also alludes to there being two minimally different dialects of Bidjara / Bidyara: a southern group who 'regard their tribal territory as comprising approximately the country drained by the upper Warrego (above Charleville) and usually call their language the 'Warrego Language'', and a northern (Clermont) group who 'call themselves Bidyara and speak the same dialect (with isolated differences in vocabulary) but are generally referred to by the southern speakers as Wadyaningu or Wadyaninga. It is not known whether this is a name used by the Bidyara on the inland side of the Great Divide for those on the seaward side, or whether it was a Bidyara name for a language to the north and is mistakenly applied to the Clermont people.' Due to the uncertain status of these names, as well as the low chance of materials emerging which are specifically about one dialect or the other, the Bidjara dialects are not included in this database, nor in the Thesaurus.
References: 
  • Breen, Gavan. 1973. Bidyara and Gungabula: grammar and vocabulary. In Linguistic Communications 8, 1-227. Melbourne: Monash University.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
QLD
Location information: 
Headwaters of Nogoa and Warrego rivers; south to Caroline, north of Augathella; east to Killarney and Chesterton; west to Nive River; north to Mantuan Downs (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Gavan Breen, Janet Mathews, Margaret Sharpe
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate0
2006Census12
2011Census9
2016Census22

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listSmall (20-100 pages)2
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarSmall grammar (100-200 pages)3
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available (Nekes) - unclear status
Grammar: 

Breen, Gavan. 1973. Bidyara and Gungabula : grammar and vocabulary. In Linguistic Communications no.8. 1- 227.

Dictionary: 
Breen, Gavan. 1973. Bidyara and Gungabula : grammar and vocabulary. In Linguistic Communications no.8. 1- 227.
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganMaricBidyara
Dixon (2002)GREATER MARIC GROUPMaric proper subgroupBidjaraBidjara* Breen (1973, 1981a) further dialects: Gungabula, Marrganj, Gunja, Wadjigu, Gayiri, Dharawala, Wadjalang, Wadjabangayi, Yiningayi, Yanjdjibara, Mandandanjdji, Guwamu, Gunggari, Ganulu, Gabulbara, Wadja, Nguri
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganMaricBidyara
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganMaricMariBidyara
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganMaricMariBidjara
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganPama-MaricMariPitjara
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganPama-MaricMariPitjara