E40: Gangulu

AIATSIS code: 
E40
AIATSIS reference name: 
Gangulu

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
-
Horton name
Gangulu
Ethnologue name
Gangulu
ISO 639-3 code
gnl
Tindale name
Kangulu
Thesaurus heading language
Gangulu language E40
Thesaurus heading (old)
Gangulu / Kanolu language (E40) (Qld SG56-01)
Tindale (1974)
Kaangooloo (['ka:ngu] = no), Cangoolootha (['tha:] == speech), Khangalu, Kangalo, Kongulu, Kongalu, Ka-ngool-lo, Konguli, Gangulu.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Kaangooloo, Khang, Kongulu, Kongalu, Konguli
Glottocode
gang1268
Other sources
Ghangulu
Synonyms
Kaangooloo, Kangulu, Kanolu, Cangoolootha, Gangu, Kangalo, Kangool lo, Khangalu, Kongalu, Konguli, Kongulu, Khang, Ghangulu, Ka ngool lo
Comment
Comments: 
Terrill (1998:78) and Breen (2009:232) classify Gangulu as a Biri E56 dialect from Central Queensland. Other dialects of the Biri language include Biri E56, Yangga E52, Yilba E55, Miyan E50, Wirri E57, Gabulbarra E45, Baradha E48, Baranha E53, Yambina E51, Yetimarala E63, Garaynbal E38 and the Brown River language (Breen, 2009).
References: 
  • Breen, Gavan. 2009. The Biri dialects and their neighbours. In Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 133(2):219-256.
  • Terrill, Angela. 1998. Biri: Languages of the world 258. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
QLD
Location information: 
... from Clermont south to the Dawson River' as a more accurate location (Terrill 1998:78). Holmer (in Breen 2009) identifies Gangulu A (Springsure and Nebo areas) and Gangulu B (Woorabinda and vicinity). The latter is just west of the northern part of Tindale's location of Kanolu (E40). Breen says that country described by Mathews (1899:108) and Howitt (1904:111) are not inconsistent with that given by Tindale. Dawson River south to Banana and Theodore; northwest to Mackenzie River and near Duaringa and Coomooboolaroo. East to Biloela, Mount Morgan, Gogango Range, and the upper Don River; southeast to Thangool and the headwaters of Grevillea Creek (Tindale 1974). The mapping of the location of Gangulu in this database is based on Tindale's location and the location of Ganuglu B in Holmer.
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
The community of Woorabinda have developed a LOTE program to teach Gangulu in primary school.
People: 
Margaret Sharpe, Charles Osborne
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Less than 20 pages 1
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Terrill, Angela. 1998. Biri. Munich: Lincom. Beale, Anthony. 1974. A grammar of the Biri language, ms.

Dictionary: 
-
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Maric Gangulu
Dixon (2002) GREATER MARIC GROUP Maric proper subgroup Gangulu Biri* (or Biria, Birigaba) Beale (1974) (note that Terrill 1998 is a publication of some of Beale's materials) further dialects: Gangulu, Wirri (or Widi), Yilba, Baradha, Yambina, Yetimarala, Garanjbal, Yangga
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Maric Gangulu
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Maric Mari Gangulu
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Maric Mari Gangulu
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Waka-Kabic | Pama-Maric Kingkel | Mari Kangulu
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Waka-Kabic Kingkel Kangulu