N104: Ritharrngu

AIATSIS code: 
N104
AIATSIS reference name: 
Ritharrngu

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Name
ABN name
Ritharngu language
ABS name
Ritharrngu, Yakuy
Horton name
Yolngu (Ritharngu)
Ethnologue name
Ritarungo
ISO 639-3 code
rit
Tindale name
Diakui (Ritarngu)
Thesaurus heading language
Ritharrngu language N104
Thesaurus heading (old)
Ritharrngu / Ridharrngu language group (N104) (NT SD53-07)
Tindale (1974)
Dhiyakuy, Djikai, Jikai, Tchikai, Dijogoi (for Diakui) Ritarungo, Ritharrngu, Ridarngo, Ritar-ingo, Rittarungo, Ritharingau, Ridarngu, Buranad-jini (for Ritarngu)
O'Grady et al (1966)
Ridarngo, Rittarungo, Ritaringo, Ritarngo
Glottocode
rita1239
Other sources
Ritharrngu, Ritharngu, Ritarrngu, Ridarno, Ridarngu, Rittarungo [Top End Handbook] Ritharr?u [Schebeck 2001]
Synonyms
Ritharngu, Yakuy, Ritarungo, Yolngu, Daii, Diakui, Djinang, Djinba, Diagoi, Dijogoi, Diyaguyi, Ridarngo, Ridarngu, Ridarrngu, Ridharrngu, Ritaringo, Ritarngo, Ritarngu, Ritarnu, Rittarungo, Rittarungor, Rudarungo, Ritarrngu, Ridarno, Dhiyakuy, Djikai, Jikai, Tchikai, Dijogoi Ritarungo, Ritar ingo, Ritharingau, Buranad jini
Comment
Comments: 
Ritharr?u (N104) is a Yolngu language group affiliated with Yirritja moiety (Schebeck, 2001:16). The name of this language group is sometimes referred to as Dhiyakuy N149, consisting of the clans Wagilak N106; Manggurra N129 and Ritharr?u (N104). Dhiyakuy is constructed with the demonstrative 'yakuy (this)', but it is not a name recognised by Yolngu (Schebeck, 2001:15). Another name associated with Dhiyakuy N149 is Yakuya N149. Heath describes Ritharrngu (N104) consisting of mala-Barrtjaray (people of the paper-bark tree) and Buna?atjini (Madarpa N111 sub-groups); Buwarpuwar N217; Mininggiri N218, Wagilak N106 and Ritharrngu (N104), also known as Bidingal N116.B (1980:2). See and use Ritharrngu (N104). See also Birdingal N116.B; Buranadjinid N123; Gulunggor N105; Nundjulbi N126 and Madarrpa N111. For Yolngu language groups see Yolngu Matha N230.
References: 
  • Greatorex, John. 2014. Yolngu Matha Dictionary http://yolngudictionary.cdu.edu.au/
  • Heath, Jeffrey G. 1980. Basic materials in Ritharngu: grammar, texts and dictionary: Pacific Linguistics B-62. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Schebeck, Bernhard. 2001. Dialect and social groupings in northeast Arnheim [i.e. Arnhem] Land vol. 7: LINCOM studies in Australian languages, no. 7. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 

The principal concentration of Ritharngu-speaking people was in the general area of the upper Koolatong River (Heath 1980:3). An inland group east and south of the Arafura Swamp and east of the true Goyder River, extending to about the Mitchell Ranges and Koolatong River headwaters; southern boundary near the headwaters of the eastern tributaries of the Goyder River (Tindale 1974).

Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 

Ngukurr Language Centre has run intermittent Ritharr?u (and Wägilak) language programs at the Ngukurr Community Education Centre (2005 - 2007; 2019).

People: 
Jeffrey Heath, Margaret Sharpe
Indigenous organisations: 

Ngukurr Language Centre https://ngukurrlc.org.au/

Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate300
1990Schmidt300
1996Census92
2001Census61
2004NILS66
2005Estimate66
2006Census32
2011Census16
2016Census22

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Small (20-100 pages) 2
Text Collection None 0
Grammar Small grammar (100-200 pages) 3
Audio-visual More than 10 3
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Heath, Jeffrey. 1980. Basic materials in Ritharngu : grammar, texts and dictionary: Pacific Linguistics B62. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Dictionary: 

Heath, Jeffrey. 1980. Basic materials in Ritharngu : grammar, texts and dictionary: Pacific Linguistics B62. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Pama-Nyungan Yuulngu Dhuwal Ritarungo  
Dixon (2002)   YOLNGU SUBGROUP* Southern Yolngu subgroup* Ritharngu Ritharngu (or Dhiyakuy) Heath (1980a) dialects include: (a) Dhiyakuy, Ritharngu; (b) Wagilak, Manggurra
Wurm (1994) Pama-Nyungan Yuulngu   Ritharngu  
Walsh (1981) Pama-Nyungan Yuulngu   Ritharngu  
Oates (1975) Pama-Nyungan Murngic Dhiyakuy Ridarngu  
Wurm (1972) Pama-Nyungan Murngic Yulngu Ridarngu (Ridharngu, Ritarungo)  
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Pama-Nyungan Murngic Yulngu Ritarungo