N155: Garrwa^

AIATSIS Code: 
N155
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Garrwa^

tab group

Name
ABN Name
Garwa language
ABS Name
Garrwa
Horton Name
Garawa
Ethnologue name
Garawa
ISO 639-3 code
gbc
Tindale name
Karawa
Thesaurus heading
Garrwa / Garrawa / Garawa language (N155) (NT SE53-08)
Tindale (1974)
Karawa (valid alternative pronunciation), Karrawar, Garawa, Kurrawar, Korrawa, Grawa, Leearawa, Kariwa (Iliaura pronunciation), Wulungwara (horde at Wollongorang), Wollongorang (place name).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Karwa, Karrawar, Kurrawar, Korrawa, Leearrawa
Glottocode
garr1260
Other sources
Karrwa, Garawa, Korrawa [Top End Handbook] Karrawa (Power), Karawa (Spencer and Gillen 1904) [Basedow 1907:3]
Synonyms
Garawa
Garawa
Karawa
Karawa; Garawa
Grawa
Kariwa
Karrawar
Kar´wa
Korrawa
Kurrawar
Leearawa
Wollongorang
Wulungwara
Karwa
Leearrawa
Korrwa
Garawa; Karawa
Garuwa
Garrawa
Karrwa
Comment
Language comment
Garrwa (N155) and neighbouring Waanyi G23 belong to the Garrwan language family. There are two known varieties: Heavy Garrwa, also called Eastern Garrwa or Gunindirri/Kunindirri C23; and Light Garrwa also called Western Garrwa (Mushin, 2012:5). Breen's examination of grammatical structures in Garrwa and Wanyi G23 leads to the conclusion they are closely related but separate languages. Breen indicates that relationships with other languages are not clear, but 'correspondences with the West Barkly languages especially are worth further study' (2003:456). The Garrwan language family is located in the Gulf of Carpentaria and is the 'only family which has explicitly been analysed as having an indeterminate or intermediate status' regarding its classification as non-Pama Nyungan or Pama Nyungan (Harvey, 2009:197-198). Harvey argues 'the evaluation of the overall evidence shows Garrwan to be a PN family, within the terms of the criteria for the hypothesised opposition' (2009:198). In contrast, earlier analyses by Blake, (1990) and Evans (2005) classify Garrwan as non-Pama Nyungan (in Mushin, 2012:6).
References

Breen, Gavan. 2003. Wanyi and Garrwa comparative data. In The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of Northern Australia. Comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region. Nicholas Evans (ED). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.Harvey, Mark. 2009. The Genetic Status of Garrwa. In Australian Journal of Linguistics, Vol 29, no 2. pp 195-244.
Mushin, Ilana. A grammar of (Western) Garrwa. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
NT
Location information
On the rocky inland dissected plateau country from Foelsche River and Robinson River Homestead south to headwaters of Robinson River and to Seigalls Creek Homestead; east to Wollogorang and to Westmoreland outstation only; northward only to edge of coastal plain about 40 miles (65 km.) inland from the sea; Calvert Hills. In early historic times they ventured to the coast at Tully Inlet where they mixed with Janjula (Tindale 1974). The general associations extended on the coast from Massacre Inlet to just west of the mouth of Robinson River and thence inland to Warby Outstation. Garrwa extended some considerable distance inland, but the precise limits of its inland extent are uncertain. Southward limits: Calvert Hills, Wollogorang, and Westmoreland all appear to have been associated with Gunindirri. It is not known how far downstream from Wollogorang and Calvert Hills, the change from Gunindirri to Garrwa associations occurred. Westward limits: The entire Robinson River drainage was associated with Garrwa. Garrwa was not associated with any part of the lower McArthur River drainage. However, the status of Kiana station area is unclear. Kiana station could have been Garrwa, Gudanji or Gunindirri (Harvey ASEDA 802).
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Speaker NILS table
1-19 years20-39 years40-59 years60+
55.567
NILS endangerment grade
2
Documentation
Document Score: 
10
Documentation table: 
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listSmall (20-100 pages)2
Text CollectionMedium (100-200 pages)3
Grammar2?
Audio-visualMore than 103
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
Belfrage, Hugh. 1992. Aspects of verb and pronoun morphology, semantics and syntax in Garrwa, University of Melbourne: BA (Hons).
Dictionary: 
Belfrage, Hugh. 1997. Garrwa Jangkurr: Garrwa dictionary draft, ms.
Programs
Activities: 
Summer Institute of Linguistics produced a few materials in mid-80's. Bible translation work has been carried out by Wycliffe Bible Translators.
People: 
Hugh Belfrage, Gavan Breen, Christine Furby, Ken Hale, Sandra Keen, Ilana Mushin, Charles Osborne, Peter Sutton, Katherine Regional Aboriginal Language Centre, Papulu Apparr-Kari Language Centre
Classification
Classification table: 
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)GarawanGarawaGarawa [dialects: Wanji (Wainyi, Waanyi)]
Dixon (2002)WAANJI/GARRWA SUBGROUP*Garrwa (or Garawa)Garrwa (or Garawa) Furby and Furby (1977), Belfrage (1992)
Wurm (1994)GarawanGarawaGarawa
Walsh (1981)GarawanGarawaGarawa
Oates (1975)GarawanGarawicGarawa
Wurm (1972)KarawanKarawicKarawa
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966)KarwanKarwicKarawa