N198: Dhuwal

AIATSIS code: 
N198
AIATSIS reference name: 
Dhuwal

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Name
Thesaurus heading language
Thesaurus heading people
ABN name
Dhuwal languages
ABS name
Dhuwal
Horton name
-
Ethnologue name
Dhuwal
ISO 639-3 code
duj
Tindale name
Duwal
Tindale (1974)
Murngin (in part), Wulamba (in part), Balamumu (coastal or sea people of southern tribes), Barlamomo, Barlamumu, Malag (['mala] = sea), Marlark, Arrawiya, Banjarrpuma, Bilamandji Dhurili (term applied chiefly to southern clans), Durilji.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Glottocode
dhuw1249
Other sources
Synonyms
Dhuwal/Dhuwala, possibly also Dhuwaya, Duwal, Murngin, Wulamba, Balamumu, Barlamomo, Barlamumu, Malag, Marlark, Arrawiya, Banjarrpuma, Bilamandji Dhurili, Durilji
Comment
Comments: 
Dhuwal (~Dhuwal'mirr) is a Yolngu Matha N230 language, affiliated with the Dhuwa moiety. The distinction between Dhuwal (N198) and Dhuwala N199 is sociolectal; they are a "dialect group" with two socially conditioned variants, crosscut by other geographically-based dialects (Morphy 1983:4-5). Clans affiliated with Dhuwal include Djambarrpuyngu N115; Liyagawumirr N101; Liyagalawumirr N108; Da:tiwuy N116.F; Marrangu N116.Q; Marrakulu N142; Djapu N145 and Dhapuyngu N116.E.
References: 
  • Morphy, Frances. 1983. Djapu, a Yolngu dialect. In Handbook of Australian languages, vol. 3, eds R. M. W. Dixon and B. J. Blake, 1-188, + map p xxiv. Canberra: ANU Press.
  • Schebeck, Bernhard. 2001. Dialect and social groupings in northeast Arnheim [i.e. Arnhem] Land vol. 7: LINCOM studies in Australian languages, no. 7. München: Lincom Europa.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Waters, Bruce E. 1989. Djinang and Djinba - a grammatical and historical perspective: Pacific Linguistics C-114. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
A grouping of clans (mala) of the Dua moiety living intermingled with Duwala of the Jiritja moiety between Castlereagh Bay, Buckingham River, and the east coast of Arnhem Land, and extending along that coast from Koolatong River to about Port Bradshaw (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
-
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
-
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census3,044
2011Census255
2016Census294

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
-
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
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Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)Pama-NyunganYuulnguDhuwalDhuwalDhuwal [dialectes: Dhuwaya, Dhuwal, Liyagawumirr, Marrangu, Marrakulu, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Datiwuy]
Dixon (2002)YOLNGU SUBGROUP*Southern Yolngu subgroup*Dhuwal/Dhuwala (possibly also Dhuwaya)Dhuwal/Dhuwala (possibly also Dhuwaya) Morphy (1991), Wilkinson (1991) dialects include (a) Dhuwala varieties (Yirritja moiety): Gupapuyngu, Gumatj; (b) Dhuwal varieties (Dhuwa moiety): Djambarrpuyngu, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Guyamirlili (Gwijamil)
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganYuulnguDhuwal
Walsh (1981)
Oates (1975)Dhuwal
Wurm (1972)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)