N21: Larrakia

AIATSIS Code: 
N21
AIATSIS Reference name: 
Larrakia

tab group

Name
ABN Name
Larrakia language
ABS Name
Larrakiya
Horton Name
Larrakia
Ethnologue name
Laragia
ISO 639-3 code
lrg
Tindale name
Larakia
Thesaurus heading
Larrakia / Laragiya / Gulumirrgin language (N21) (NT SD52-04)
Tindale (1974)
Larrakia, Larakiya, Larakeeyah, Larrakiya, Larrak-eah, Larrakeeyah, Larrakiha, Laragia, Larragea, Larrekiya, Larrakeeha, Larreekeeyah, Larikia, Larrikia, Larrikiya, Larriquia, Binnimiginda (coastal hordes), Gunmajerrumba (inland hordes), Marri (a southern horde).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Larrakia, Larrakeah, Larrakeeyah, Larrakiha, Laragia, Larragea, Larrekiya, Larreekeeyah, Larikia, Larrikia, Larrikiya, Larriquia
Glottocode
lara1258
Other sources
Gulumirrgin (the name used by Larrakia speakers themselves), Laragia, Larragia, Larrakia, Larekia, Larrekiya, Larrikiya, Ngandalagarak (the name used by their south-eastern neighbours, the Warray) [Top End Handbook] Larrekiya [Basedow:1907:1] Larrakeah (Foelsche 1882), Larikia (Coppinger 1883), Larrakia and Larragea (Curr 1886), Larrikiya (Mackillop), Larrakia, Larrakiha, Larrikia, Larrakeeha, and Larreekeeyah) (Parkhouse 1895) [Basedow 1907:1]
Synonyms
Larrakiya
Gulumirrgin
Laragia
Larakia
Binnimiginda
Gunmajerrumba
Laragai
Laragiya
Larakeeyah
Larakiya
Larikia
Larragea
Larrakeah
Larrakeeha
Larrakeeyah
Larrakiha
Larreekeeyah
Larrekiya
Larriguia
Larrikaa
Larrikia
Larrikiha
Larrikiya
Larriquia
Marri
Woolsoongah
Larragia
Larekia
Ngandalagarak Larrakeah
Larrak eah
Comment
Language comment
Larrakia is a non-Pama Nyungan language from the Darwin region of the Northern Territory. Larrakia (N21) is an exonym (a name given by outsiders), but is commonly used in modern times by Larrakia people. Gulumoerrgin (N21) was an endonym (a name used by the people to refer to themselves and their language) in times past. This database uses Larrakia as a term that is commonly used, and documented in early historical sources (Michael Walsh, pers. com. 2018). Larrakia people are often referred to as 'saltwater people'.
References

Evans, Nicholas. 2003. Introduction: Comparative non-Pama-Nyungan and Australian historical linguistics. In The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia: comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region, ed. Nicholas Evans, 285-303. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.Larrakia Nation <http://larrakia.com/>

Status
Confirmed
Location
State
NT
Location information
Darwin (Top End Handbook). Darwin and the surrounding area including Cox Peninsula (Harvey PMS 5822). From Finniss River and Fog Bay northeast to about Gunn Point west of the mouth of Adelaide River; inland to a point 10 miles (16 km.) north of Rum Jungle; at Darwin, Southport, Bynoe Harbour, and Howard River (Tindale 1974). a territory extending southwards between the Howard River on the east and the Finniss on the west, a subdivision or a clan, the Marri, having a local distribution near the mouth of the Blackmore River and forming the southern boundary at about twenty-five miles inland (Basedow 1907:1). The general associations were from the mouth of the Finniss to around Point Stephens. Inland associations included all drainages into Bynoe and Darwin Harbours. The Vernon Islands were associated with Gulumoerrgin. Eastward limits: The eastern boundary is based on examination of place names. The distribution of apparently Gulumoerrgin place names as opposed to apparently Wuna place names matches to the ecological opposition between forested country – Gulumoerrgin, and grassland – Wuna. Southward limits: The boundary at the mouth of the Finniss River is based on statements by Aboriginal witnesses in the Kenbi Land Claim. The boundary in the area of the old North Australian railway and east to the Adelaide River is based on statements in early colonial reports about the southern boundary of Gulumoerrgin, and the statements of Warray informants about the northern boundary of Warray. The boundary between the mouth of the Finniss and the area of the old North Australian Railway is extrapolated. It is based on the ecological zone opposition between the wooded hill country on the southern shore of Bynoe Harbour – Gulumoerrgin, and the grassland floodplain of the lower Finniss – Gungarakany (Harvey ASEDA 802). The Larrakia people are the traditional owners of the Darwin region. Our country runs from Cox peninsula in the west to Gunn Point in the north, Adelaide River in the east and down to the Manton Dam area southwards. (Larrakia Nation ,http://larrakia.com/about/the-larrakia-people/>)
Maps
-
Catalogue
Search MURA the AIATSIS catalogue, for items about this language
Speakers
Speaker table
Oates 1973 Senate 1984 Schmidt 1990 Census 1996 Census 2001 NILS 2004 2005 estimate Census 2006
5 - - - - - - 29
Speaker NILS table
- - - -
1-19 years 20-39 years 40-59 years 60+
NILS endangerment grade
-
Documentation
Document Score: 
6
Documentation table: 
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript Note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
Mark Harvey. Larrakia dictionary, ASEDA 0774.
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Arthur Capell, Mark Harvey, Thomas Parkhouse, Yirra Bandoo Aboriginal Corporation, Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Classification
Classification table: 
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Laragiyan     Laragia  
Dixon (2002)   DARWIN REGION GROUP Limilngan Wulna areal group Larrakiya (=Gulumirrgin) Larrakiya (=Gulumirrgin)
Wurm (1994) Laragiyan Laragiya   Laragiya  
Walsh (1981) Laragiyan Laragiyic   Laragiya (Larakiya)  
Oates (1975) Larakian Larakic   Laragia  
Wurm (1972) Larakian Larakic   Larakia  
O'Grady, Voegelin & Voegelin (1966) Larakian Larakic   Larakia