N21: Larrakia

AIATSIS code: 
N21
AIATSIS reference name: 
Larrakia

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Name
ABN name
Larrakia language
ABS name
Larrakiya
Horton name
Larrakia
Ethnologue name
Laragia
ISO 639-3 code
lrg
Tindale name
Larakia
Thesaurus heading language
Larrakia language N21
Thesaurus heading (old)
Larrakia / Laragiya / Gulumirrgin language (N21) (NT SD52-04)
Tindale (1974)
Larrakia, Larakiya, Larakeeyah, Larrakiya, Larrak-eah, Larrakeeyah, Larrakiha, Laragia, Larragea, Larrekiya, Larrakeeha, Larreekeeyah, Larikia, Larrikia, Larrikiya, Larriquia, Binnimiginda (coastal hordes), Gunmajerrumba (inland hordes), Marri (a southern horde).
O'Grady et al (1966)
Larrakia, Larrakeah, Larrakeeyah, Larrakiha, Laragia, Larragea, Larrekiya, Larreekeeyah, Larikia, Larrikia, Larrikiya, Larriquia
Glottocode
lara1258
Other sources
Gulumirrgin (the name used by Larrakia speakers themselves), Laragia, Larragia, Larrakia, Larekia, Larrekiya, Larrikiya, Ngandalagarak (the name used by their south-eastern neighbours, the Warray) [Top End Handbook] Larrekiya [Basedow:1907:1] Larrakeah (Foelsche 1882), Larikia (Coppinger 1883), Larrakia and Larragea (Curr 1886), Larrikiya (Mackillop), Larrakia, Larrakiha, Larrikia, Larrakeeha, and Larreekeeyah) (Parkhouse 1895) [Basedow 1907:1]
Synonyms
Larrakiya, Gulumirrgin, Laragia, Larakia, Binnimiginda, Gunmajerrumba, Laragai, Laragiya, Larakeeyah, Larakiya, Larikia, Larragea, Larrakeah, Larrakeeha, Larrakeeyah, Larrakiha, Larreekeeyah, Larrekiya, Larriguia, Larrikaa, Larrikia, Larrikiha, Larrikiya, Larriquia, Marri, Woolsoongah, Larragia, Larekia, Ngandalagarak Larrakeah, Larrak eah
Comment
Comments: 
Larrakia is a non-Pama Nyungan language from the Darwin region of the Northern Territory. Larrakia (N21) is an exonym (a name given by outsiders), but is commonly used in modern times by Larrakia people. Gulumoerrgin (N21) was an endonym (a name used by the people to refer to themselves and their language) in times past. This database uses Larrakia as a term that is commonly used, and documented in early historical sources (Michael Walsh, pers. com. 2018). Larrakia people are often referred to as 'saltwater people'.
References: 
  • Evans, Nicholas. 2003. Introduction: Comparative non-Pama-Nyungan and Australian historical linguistics. In The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia: comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region, ed. Nicholas Evans, 285-303. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.Larrakia Nation <http://larrakia.com/>
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
Darwin (Top End Handbook). Darwin and the surrounding area including Cox Peninsula (Harvey PMS 5822). From Finniss River and Fog Bay northeast to about Gunn Point west of the mouth of Adelaide River; inland to a point 10 miles (16 km.) north of Rum Jungle; at Darwin, Southport, Bynoe Harbour, and Howard River (Tindale 1974). a territory extending southwards between the Howard River on the east and the Finniss on the west, a subdivision or a clan, the Marri, having a local distribution near the mouth of the Blackmore River and forming the southern boundary at about twenty-five miles inland (Basedow 1907:1). The general associations were from the mouth of the Finniss to around Point Stephens. Inland associations included all drainages into Bynoe and Darwin Harbours. The Vernon Islands were associated with Gulumoerrgin. Eastward limits: The eastern boundary is based on examination of place names. The distribution of apparently Gulumoerrgin place names as opposed to apparently Wuna place names matches to the ecological opposition between forested country - Gulumoerrgin, and grassland - Wuna. Southward limits: The boundary at the mouth of the Finniss River is based on statements by Aboriginal witnesses in the Kenbi Land Claim. The boundary in the area of the old North Australian railway and east to the Adelaide River is based on statements in early colonial reports about the southern boundary of Gulumoerrgin, and the statements of Warray informants about the northern boundary of Warray. The boundary between the mouth of the Finniss and the area of the old North Australian Railway is extrapolated. It is based on the ecological zone opposition between the wooded hill country on the southern shore of Bynoe Harbour - Gulumoerrgin, and the grassland floodplain of the lower Finniss - Gungarakany (Harvey ASEDA 802). The Larrakia people are the traditional owners of the Darwin region. Our country runs from Cox peninsula in the west to Gunn Point in the north, Adelaide River in the east and down to the Manton Dam area southwards. (Larrakia Nation ,http://larrakia.com/about/the-larrakia-people/>)
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Arthur Capell, Mark Harvey, Thomas Parkhouse, Yirra Bandoo Aboriginal Corporation, Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates5
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census29
2011Census8
2016Census14

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Text Collection None 0
Grammar A few articles 1
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
Mark Harvey. Larrakia dictionary, ASEDA 0774.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Laragiyan Laragia
Dixon (2002) DARWIN REGION GROUP Limilngan Wulna areal group Larrakiya (=Gulumirrgin) Larrakiya (=Gulumirrgin)
Wurm (1994) Laragiyan Laragiya Laragiya
Walsh (1981) Laragiyan Laragiyic Laragiya (Larakiya)
Oates (1975) Larakian Larakic Laragia
Wurm (1972) Larakian Larakic Larakia
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Larakian Larakic Larakia