N80: Nakkara

AIATSIS code: 
N80
AIATSIS reference name: 
Nakkara

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Name
ABN name
Nakkara language
ABS name
Na-kara
Horton name
Nakara
Ethnologue name
Nakara
ISO 639-3 code
nck
Tindale name
Nakara
Thesaurus heading language
Nakkara language N80
Thesaurus heading (old)
Nakkara / Nagara language (N80) (NT SD53-02)
Tindale (1974)
Naka:ra, Naga:ra, Nagara, Ngara.
O'Grady et al (1966)
Nagara
Glottocode
naka1260
Other sources
Gukari(ya) (used by Burarra people to refer to Nakkara people and their language) [Eather 1990:4] Nakara, Nagara [Top End Handbook]
Synonyms
Na kara, Gukariya, Nakara, Nagara, Kokori, Kukkori, Nackara, Naga:ra, Naka:ra, Narkarrar, Ngara, Gukari
Comment
Comments: 
Nakkara (N80) is a non-Pama-Nyungan language which, due to shared structural features, has more in common with Ndjébbana N74 than with other languages in the region. The language name incorporates the demonstrative 'kara, this-here' meaning 'this way' or 'with, using this one'; Eather classifies these two languages as members of the Gunwiynguan family (2011:1-3). Based on a comparison of verb tense/status suffixes, Green classifies Nakkara (N80), Burarra N82, Gurr-goni N75 and Ndjebbana N74 as a 'Maningrida subgroup' of the larger Gunwinjguan language family, (Capell, Voegelin and Voegelin in Green, 1995:4-5). Dixon places Nakkara and Ndjebbana N74 in the Maningrida sub-group of the higher level Arnhem Land Group (2002:xl). See also Gurr-goni N75 and Burarra N82.
References: 
  • Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Australian languages: their nature and development: Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Eather, Bronwyn. 1990. A grammar of Nakkara (Central Arnhem Land Coast). MFE 191.
  • Eather, Bronwyn. 2011. A grammar of Nakkara (Central Arnhem Land Coast). Outstanding grammars from Australia. Muenchen :Lincom Europa.
  • Green, Rebecca. 1995. A grammar of Gurr-goni (north central Arnhem Land). Australian National University, PhD thesis.https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/9278?mode=full
  • Harvey, Mark. 2008. Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages: land-language associations at colonisation. (ASEDA 802).
Status: 
Confirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
NT
Location information: 
The traditional tribal area of the Nakkara is a shallow coastal pocket in the Boucat Bay area extending from near the mouth of Garddjarrama (Gudjarama) Creek along the coast, east of Namayerra (Anameyerra) Creek to the mouth of the Blyth River, and inland about sixteen kilometres. The majority of Nakkara people now live in the government settlement of Maningrida (Eather 1990:4). The general associations were a shallow coastal pocket on Boucat Bay extending about 16km inland from Anamayirra Creek west to Garddjarrama Creek (Harvey ASEDA 802).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
Bronwyn Eather,
Indigenous organisations: 
-
Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt75 - 100
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate50
2006Census51
2011Census102
2016Census58

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
Type Documentation Status Documentation Score
Word list Medium (100-200 pages) 3
Text Collection Small (20-100 pages) 2
Grammar Large grammar (more than 200 pages) 4
Audio-visual 1-10 2
Manuscript note: 
tape transcription/field note available
Grammar: 

Eather, Bronwyn. 1990. A grammar of Nakkara (Central Arnhem Land coast, Australian National University: PhD.

Eather, Bronwyn. 2005. A learner's guide to the Na-Kara language. Winnellie, NT: Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation.

Eather, Bronwyn. 2011. A grammar of Nakkara (Central Arnhem Land coast). Outstanding grammars from Australia. Muenchen: Lincom Europa.

Dictionary: 
Eather, Bronwyn. 2005. A first dictionary of Na-Kara. Winnellie, NT: Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation.
Classification
Source Family Group Sub-group Name Relationship
Ethnologue (2005) Gunwingguan Burarran Nakara
Dixon (2002) ARNHEM LAND GROUP Maningrida subgroup* Nakkara (or Gukariya) Nakkara (or Gukariya) Eather (1990)
Wurm (1994) Nakkara Nakarra
Walsh (1981) Nakkaran Nakkara
Oates (1975) Nagaran Nagara
Wurm (1972) Nagaran Nagara (or Kokori)
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966) Nagaran Nakara