C11: Yumu

AIATSIS code: 
C11
AIATSIS reference name: 
Yumu

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Name
ABN name
-
ABS name
-
Horton name
Luritja (Jumu)
Ethnologue name
-
ISO 639-3 code
-
Tindale name
Jumu
Thesaurus heading language
Yumu language C11
Thesaurus heading (old)
Yumu language (C11) (NT SF52-16)
Tindale (1974)
Yumu, Pa:kulja, Ngatatara (language term applied to them by the Kukatja, because they say ['?ada] or ['?ata] where other people would use the word ['na?ata]), Ngadad-jara (of C. Berndt in part).
O'Grady et al (1966)
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Glottocode
-
Other sources
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Synonyms
Luritja, Jumu, Kukatja, Loritja, Matuntara, Ngalia, Ngadadjara, Ngatatara, Pa:kulja, Ngadad jara
Comment
Comments: 
According to Holcombe (2004:1), Yumu was not a term used by the people who inhabited the area where Tindale identified as Jumu (C11), and the language names Mayutjarra and Kukatja were used instead. Tindale (1974) says Ngatatara is language term applied to Jumu by the Kukatja.
References: 
  • Capell, Arthur. 1963. Linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  • Holcombe, Sarah. 2004. Socio-political perspectives on localism and regionalism in the Pintupi Luritja region of central Australia: Implications for service delivery and governance, CAEPR working paper 25. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research.
  • Oates, Lynette F. 1975. The 1973 supplement to a revised linguistic survey of Australia. Armidale: Armidale Christian Book Centre.
  • Tindale, Norman B. 1974. Aboriginal tribes of Australia: their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press/Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Status: 
Unconfirmed
Location
State / Territory: 
-
Location information: 
Western MacDonnell Ranges from Mount Russell east to near Mount Zeil; north to southern vicinity of central Mount Wedge and Lake Bennett, south to Mounts Solitary and Udor; at Haast Bluff and Mounts Liebig and Peculiar (Tindale 1974).
Maps: 
-
Catalogue
Links
Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981): 

Bidungu (A40 ) in Sourcebook for Central Australian Languages (1981).

Pintupi

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Bindubi (AC, AIAS), Bindubu, Pintupi (T), Pintupi (Hansen), Loritja, Luridja (AIAS), Luritja (RLS, AIAS, Hansen) C.010 (Pintupi), C11 (Yumu)
See Hansen & Hansen, 1977, 1978 for the usage of the name Luritja. Apparently it is a name used generally by Aranda for Western Desert group; the eastern members of Western Desert, who have been in association with Aranda, use the term Luritja to distinguish themselves from "bush" Pintupi. Apparently there are speech differences between Pintupi and Luritja, but they are
dialects of one language. See also Pitjantjatjara.
Yumu:
This language said to be closely related to Pintupi and to Kukatja (W.A.), but on which there is very little information.
Alternative spellings: Jumu (T,O'G,Elkin, Fry), Yumi (Roheim), Yumu (Cleland & Johnson, SAW, AIAS).
Classification of the language:
Western Desert, Wati subgroup
Identification codes:
Oates '73: 56.9a (Pintupi), 56.9b (Yumu), 56.9c (Luritja)
AIAS: C.010 (Pintupi), C11 (Yumu)
Capell: C7 (Pintupi), C16 (Yumu)
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Papunya and outstations, Haasts Bluff, Areyonga, Yuendumu, Docker River; Hermannsburg, Glen Helen (particularly Luritja)
Milliken, 1972 -- 613
Black, 1979 -- 800
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Ken Hansen, John Heffernan (Papunya)
Practical orthography:
Established, devised by Hansen & Hansen.
Word lists:
Hansen & Hansen, 1977.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Hansen & Hansen, 1978.
Material available on the language:
See also:
AIAS Selected reading list, Central and Western Desert: The Aranda, Bidjandjarra, Bindubi, Waljbiri. 17p. mimeo. AIAS. 197?
and:
de Graaf, Mark. 1976. Pintupi bibliography. 10p. ms. Alice Springs.
Cleland, J.B. & T.H. Johnson. 1933. The ecology of the Aborigines of Central Australia. Royal Society of South Australia. Transactions 57:113-124. tbls. (lists of plants with names in Aranda, Luritja, Pintubi, Ngalia, Yumu)
Hale, Kenneth L. Ikirinytyi. (mother-in-law language in Luritja) ms.
Hansen, K.C. & L.E. 1969. Pintupi phonology. Oceanic Linguistics 8:153-170.
---------- 1975. The sentence in Pintupi. (First draft, 1970, 58p. SIL; Part 2, Aug. 1971, 56p. SIL)
---------- 1975. Some suggestions for making the transition from Pintupi/Loritja reading to English reading. 12p. mimeo. ts. SIL.
---------- 1977. Pintupi/Luritja Dictionary. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch, Berrimah. 227p. 2nd edition, Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development.
---------- (with Tjampu Tjapaltjarri) 1980. Pintubi Kinship. 44pp. booklet. 2nd edition. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development. (1st edition, 1974)
Huttar, George L. 1976. Notes on Pintupi phonology. Talanya 3(May):14-24. (Paper presented 1975 at LSA with K.C. Hansen)
Moyle, Richard M. 1979. Songs of the Pintupi. Music in a central Australian society. AIAS.
Murtonen, A. 1969. Pintupi statistical and comparative survey of an Australian Western Desert language. viii+61p. Dept. of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Melbourne. (Also cited as:
Outline of a general theory of linguistics...)
Myers, Fred Ralph. 1976. "To have and to hold": a study of persistence and change in Pintupi social life. Bryn Mawr dissertation. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
Roberts, Murphy. 1975. Pintupi alphabet - adapted from the Warlpiri (constructed) by Ken Hale. 1p. mimeo. Yayayi.
Tindale, N.B. 1932. Journal of an expedition to Mt Leibig, Central Australia, to do anthropological research. Aug 1932. 374p. + suppl. notes. ms. (Kukatja, Jumu, Ngalia, Anmatjera,
Pintubi and Aranda)
Literacy material:
Hansen, K.C. & L.E. 1974. Wangka walytja 1-4. [Our own talk]. Department of Education.
---------- 1974. Wakantjaku 1-4 [For the purpose of writing]. Department of Education.
---------- 1974. Teachers' guide to Pintupi primers. Sections 1,2. Department of Education.
A number of other readers, and scripture portions.
Bilingual newsletter produced at Papunya school.

Kathy Menning (comp.) and David Nash (ed.) 1981. © IAD Press

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledges IAD Press for permission to use this material in AUSTLANG.

Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988): 

Bundjuwanga (A75* ) in Handbook of Kimberley Languages (1988).

8.8 Pintupi / Bindubi

Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Bindubi (Capell, AIAS), Bindubu, Pintupi (Tindale), Pintupi (Hansen), Loritja, Luridja (AIAS), Luritja (Oates & Oates, AIAS, Hansen)
See Hansen & Hansen (1977) and (1978), and Heffernan (1984a) for the usage of the name Luritja. Apparently it is a name used generally by the Arrernte (Aranda) people of Central Australia for the Western Desert group. It has also been adopted by many different Western Desert groups who have taken up residence on Arrerntic land (Ian Green, pers.comm.). The term does not identify a specific dialect; for instance, Papunya Luritja is not the same dialect as Alice Springs Luritja. According to Ian Green (pers.comm.), "Papunya Luritja has developed from Eastern Pintupi, shows influence from Warlpiri and Arrernte, and shares some grammatical/morphological features with the southern Western Desert dialects Yankunytjatjarra and Pitjanytjatjarra rather than Pintupi. Eastern Pintupi was spoken in the Kintore-Ilypili region, and the Pintupi described by Hansen and Hansen was spoken in the area west of Kintore (see Hansen & Hansen 1977:21)." See also Yulparija, Wangkajunga, and Kukatja.The Yumu language is said to be closely related to Pintupi and to Kukatja, but there is very little information on it. Alternative spellings are: Jumu (Tindale, O'Grady, Elkin, Fry), Yumi (Roheim), Yumu (Cleland & Johnson, Wurm, AIAS).
Classification of the language:
Pama-Nyungan family, Western Desert group, Wati subgroup
Identification codes:
AIAS: C10 (Pintupi), C11 (Yumu)
Oates 1973: 56.9a (Pintupi), 56.9b (Yumu), 56.9c (Luritja)
Capell: C7 (Pintupi), C16 (Yumu)
Present number and distribution of speakers:
Some speakers are to be found in the Kimberley region, in Halls Creek and Balgo, but most live in the NT, principally at Papunya and outstations, Haast's Bluff, Mt. Liebig area, Kintore and outstations, Kiwirrkurra; also some at Areyonga, Yuendumu, Docker River, Nyirrpi, Hermannsburg, Glen Helen (particularly Luritja).
Milliken, 1972 - 613
Black, 1979 - 800
Green (pers.comm.), 1986 - about 1,000
People who have worked intensively on the language:
Ken Hansen, since 1960s, Papunya
John Heffernan, since early 1980s, Papunya
Ian Green, since 1984, Papunya
Practical orthography:
A practical orthography has been established, and used in the Papunya school; it was devised by Hansen and Hansen. This is the same system that is used in Pitjantjatjarra and Yankunytjatjarra, and similar to the Kukatja variant of the South Kimberley orthography (see page 6), except that underlining is used to indicate retroflexion, instead of an r before the letter.
Word lists:
Hansen & Hansen (1977), Heffernan (1984b)
Textual material:
Heffernan (1984a)
A Pintupi/Luritja text series is under way, under the supervision of a linguist with the Northern Terrtiory Education Department, Ian Green. The texts will be mainly edited classroom texts, but tapes and transcripts will also be available. The Papunya Literature Production Centre will publish the series.
Grammar or sketch grammar:
Hansen & Hansen (1978), Heffernan (1984a)
Material available on the language:
See also:
AIAS Selected reading list, Central and Western Desert: The Aranda, Bidjandjarra, Bindubi, Waljbiri. 17p. mimeo. AIAS. 197?
de Graaf, Mark. 1976. Pintupi bibliography. 10p. manuscript. Alice Springs.
Cleland, J.B. & Johnson, T.H. 1933. The ecology of the Aborigines of Central Australia. Royal Society of South Australia. Transactions 57. 113-124.
Ellis, C.J. 1984. Time consciousness of Aboriginal performers. In Kassler, J.C. & Stubington, J. (eds), Problems and solutions: occasional essays in musicology presented to Alice M. Moyle. Sydney: Hale and Iremonger. 149-185.
Hale, K.L. Ikirinytyi (mother-in-law language in Luritja). manuscript.
Hansen, K.C. 1985. Translating for the Pintupi. mimeo. 11pp. Darwin: Nungalinya College.
Hansen, K.C.& Hansen, L.E. 1969. Pintupi phonology. Oceanic Linguistics 8. 153-170.
_____ .1975. The sentence in Pintupi. (First draft, 1970, 58p. SIL; Part 2, Aug. 1971, 56p. SIL)
_____ .1975. Some suggestions for making the transition from Pintupi/Loritja reading to English reading. 12p. mimeo. typescript. SIL.
_____ .1977. Pintupi/Luritja Dictionary. Darwin: SIL. Second edition, Alice Springs: IAD.
_____ . 1978. The core of Pintubi grammar. Alice Springs: IAD.
_____ (with Tjampu Tjapaltjarri) 1980. Pintubi Kinship. 44pp. booklet. Second edition. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development. (1st edition, 1974)
Heffernan, J. 1984a. Papunya Luritja language notes. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
_____ .1984b. [Papunya Luritja word-list.] manuscript.
_____ .1984c. Dialect change amongst the Eastern Pintupi. In Australian Linguistics Society Conference Precirculation papers. Alice Springs: I.A.D. 5-16.
Huttar, G.L. 1976. Notes on Pintupi phonology. Talanya 3. 14-24.
Moyle, R.M. 1979. Songs of the Pintupi. Music in a central Australian society. Canberra: AIAS.
Murtonen, A. 1969. Pintupi statistical and comparative survey of an Australian Western Desert language. Department of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Melbourne. (Also cited as: Outline of a general theory of linguistics.)
Myers, F.R. 1976. "To have and to hold": a study of persistence and change in Pintupi social life. PhD thesis, Bryn Mawr. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
_____ .1982a. Always ask: resource use and land ownership among Pintupi Aborigines of the Australian Western Desert. In Williams, N. & Hunn, E.S. (eds), Resource managers: North American and Australian hunter-gatherers. Boulder: Westview Press for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 173-195.
_____ .1982b. Ideology and experience: the cultural basis of Pintupi life. In Howard, N.C. (ed.), Aboriginal power in Australian society. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. 79-114.
_____ .1986. Pintupi country, Pintupi self: sentiment, place, and politics among the Western Desert Aborigines. Washington & London: Smithsonian Institution Press, and Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
Roberts, M. 1975. Pintupi alphabet - adapted from the Warlpiri (constructed) by Ken Hale. 1p. mimeo. Yayayi.
Tindale, N.B. 1932. Journal of an expedition to Mt Leibig, Central Australia, to do anthropological research. Aug 1932. 374p. + suppl. notes. manuscript.
Language programme:
A bilingual education programme has been running for some years in the Papunya school.
Language learning material:
IAD Pintupi intensive course, 1976, 1977. Introduction 2p., Tape listening sheets 30p., Summary of contents of lessons 30p., Pintupi story material 12p., Contents of tape-recorded drill materials 117p.
Heffernan, J. 1984. Papunya Luritja language notes. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Literacy material:
Too many to mention here. The Papunya Literature Production Centre has already about 200 publications to its credit. A bilingual newsletter is also produced by the Centre. The following is a short selection of teaching material available.
Hansen, K.C. & L.E. 1974. Wangka walytja 1-4. [Our own talk]. NT Department of Education.
_____ .1974. Wakantjaku 1-4 [For the purpose of writing]. NT Department of Education.
_____ .1974. Teachers' guide to Pintupi primers. Sections 1,2. NT Department of Education.
Heysen, S. 1985. Piipa yini tampirrpa tjutatjarra wakalpayi. Nampa kutju. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Morris, K. 1985a. Rodeo. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
_____ .1985b. Ula kutjarra yankupayi. (The boys who go hunting.) Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
_____ .1985c. Yara mulyatanku puluka mantjintja. (Stealing cattle.) Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Phillipus, C. 1985. Tjukurrpa yanamarra, pintapintarringutja. (The tale of the caterpiller that became a butterfly.) Illustrated by H. Clarke. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Rrurrambu, G. 1985. Tjapirunya tjakipirrinya. (Jabiru and emu.) Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
Tjupurrula, P. 1985. Tjampitjinpa taraantarringu. (Early contact experiences near Mt. Leibig.) Translated by M. Roberts. Illustrated by D. Nelson. Papunya: Papunya Literature Production Centre.
There are also many religious materials, including a volume of translations from the Old Testament:
Bible, Old Testament. 1981. Katutjalu watjantja yirrititjanu. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House.

McGregor, William. 1988 Handbook of Kimberley Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. © Author.

AIATSIS gratefully acknowledge William McGregor for permission to use his material in AUSTLANG.

Programs
Activities: 
-
People: 
-
Indigenous organisations: 
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Speakers
Year Source Speaker numbers
1975Oates-
1984Senate-
1990Schmidt-
1996Census-
2001Census-
2004NILS-
2005Estimate-
2006Census-
2011Census-
2016Census-

Speaker numbers were measured differently across the censuses and various other sources listed in AUSTLANG. You are encouraged to refer to the sources.

Speaker numbers for ‘NILS 2004’ and ‘2005 estimate’ come from 'Table F.3: Numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages (various surveys)' in 'Appendix F NILS endangerment and absolute number results' in McConvell, Marmion and McNicol 2005, pages 198-230 (PDF, 2.5MB).

Documentation
TypeDocumentation StatusDocumentation Score
Word listNone0
Text CollectionNone0
GrammarNone0
Audio-visualNone0
Manuscript note: 
not available
Grammar: 
-
Dictionary: 
-
Classification
SourceFamilyGroupSub-groupNameRelationship
Ethnologue (2005)
Dixon (2002)
Wurm (1994)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestYumu
Walsh (1981)Pama-NyunganSouth-WestWati/Western DesertYumu
Oates (1975)Pama-NyunganWestern Desert ProperWatiYumu
Wurm (1972)Pama-NyunganSouthwest (or Nyungic)Western Desert LanguageYumu
O'Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin (1966)Pama-NyunganSouthwestWatiJumu